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Rhiannon Vickers

Vic05 10/15/03 2:11 PM Page 107 Chapter 5 The Labour Party, pacifism and the Spanish Civil War On 18 September 1931 Japan invaded China on the pretext that a Japanese railway in Manchuria had suffered from Chinese sabotage. Japanese troops over-ran Manchuria and set up a puppet state. China appealed to the League of Nations for assistance under Article 11 of the Covenant, and the League responded by asking Japan to evacuate the territory it had occupied. Japan, which had signed up to the Covenant of the League of Nations and the Briand-Kellogg Pact (thereby

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Zahira Araguete-Toribio

This article considers how the reburial and commemoration of the human remains of the Republican defeated during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) is affected by the social, scientific and political context in which the exhumations occur. Focusing on a particular case in the southwestern region of Extremadura, it considers how civil society groups administer reburial acts when a positive identification through DNA typing cannot be attained. In so doing, the article examines how disparate desires and memories come together in collective reburial of partially individuated human remains.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Queralt Solé

Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Spain has experienced a cycle of exhumations of the mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) and has rediscovered that the largest mass grave of the state is the monument that glorifies the Franco regime: the Valley of the Fallen. Building work in the Sierra de Guadarrama, near Madrid, was begun in 1940 and was not completed until 1958. This article analyses for the first time the regimes wish, from the start of the works, for the construction of the Valley of the Fallen to outdo the monument of El Escorial. At the same time the regime sought to create a new location to sanctify the dictatorship through the vast transfer to its crypts of the remains of the dead of the opposing sides of the war.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
The evolution of Labour’s foreign policy, 1900–51

This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.

Patricio Galella

During the Spanish Civil War, extrajudicial executions and disappearances of political opponents took place and their corpses were buried in unregistered mass graves. The absence of an official policy by successive democratic governments aimed at the investigation of these cases, the identification and exhumation of mass graves, together with legal obstacles, have prevented the victims families from obtaining reparation, locating and recovering the human remains. This paper argues that this state of affairs is incompatible with international human rights law and Spain should actively engage in the search for the whereabouts and identification of the bodies with all the available resources.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

vehemently denounced militarism in the run-up to the outbreak of the First World War, but once war was declared the party’s policy was to support the government and not threaten the war effort. As was discussed in Chapter 3, the party flirted with various forms of pacifism in the early 1930s, but this was rejected in the face of the rising threat of fascism. Certainly the party has tended to be against the use of force while in opposition, seeing it as resulting in war, but this policy was discredited by the failure of the non-intervention pact on the Spanish Civil War

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Missing persons and colonial skeletons in South Africa
Nicky Rousseau

experiences of working in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and in the Missing Persons Task Team (MPTT). Thanks to Ciraj Rassool, Madeleine Fullard, and members of a graduate reading group on the dead body – Riedwaan Moosage, Bianca van Laun, and Aidan Erasmus  – for comments and many stimulating discussions. This contrasts with a growing literature on issues of memory and materiality, much of which arises from recent Spanish Civil War exhumations. See, for example, F. Ferrándiz, ‘Cries and whispers: exhuming and narrating defeat in Spain today’, Journal of Spanish

in Human remains and identification
Challenges and technological solutions to the ­identification of individuals in mass grave scenarios in the modern context
Gillian Fowler and Tim Thompson

some cases given false hope to family members who perceive DNA technology as an all-encompassing solution. They are then disappointed if an identification is not possible, and may feel misled by the whole process. In his recent work, Francisco Ferrándiz highlights this very issue with the identification of victims of the Spanish Civil War.5 The science of identification is fallible and care must be taken not to present these advances as a solution with a guaranteed outcome. There are numerous challenges that exist that hinder an identification being made. Traditional

in Human remains and identification
Neil Macmaster

her children, to find work, to organise legal proceedings, to appoint a lawyer, confront the police, the administration, the army’ . SHAT 1H2461/1, note of Commandant Bouraix, 23 January 1959. Feraoun, Journal, 242–3, 257. The reassertion of male authority and gender roles on the termination of conflict can be found in many historical situations: see for example in relation to the Spanish Civil War, Mary Nash, Defying Male Civilization: Women in the Spanish Civil War (Denver, Colo.: Areden Press, 1995), and Shirley Mangini, Memories of Resistance: Women’s Voices

in Burning the veil