The Labour Party, pacifism
and the SpanishCivilWar
On 18 September 1931 Japan invaded China on the pretext that a
Japanese railway in Manchuria had suffered from Chinese sabotage.
Japanese troops over-ran Manchuria and set up a puppet state. China
appealed to the League of Nations for assistance under Article 11 of
the Covenant, and the League responded by asking Japan to evacuate
the territory it had occupied. Japan, which had signed up to the
Covenant of the League of Nations and the Briand-Kellogg Pact
This article considers how the reburial and commemoration of the human remains of the
Republican defeated during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) is affected by the social,
scientific and political context in which the exhumations occur. Focusing on a particular
case in the southwestern region of Extremadura, it considers how civil society groups
administer reburial acts when a positive identification through DNA typing cannot be
attained. In so doing, the article examines how disparate desires and memories come
together in collective reburial of partially individuated human remains.
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Spain has experienced a cycle of
exhumations of the mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) and has rediscovered
that the largest mass grave of the state is the monument that glorifies the Franco regime:
the Valley of the Fallen. Building work in the Sierra de Guadarrama, near Madrid, was
begun in 1940 and was not completed until 1958. This article analyses for the first time
the regimes wish, from the start of the works, for the construction of the Valley of the
Fallen to outdo the monument of El Escorial. At the same time the regime sought to create
a new location to sanctify the dictatorship through the vast transfer to its crypts of the
remains of the dead of the opposing sides of the war.
This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.
During the Spanish Civil War, extrajudicial executions and disappearances of political
opponents took place and their corpses were buried in unregistered mass graves. The
absence of an official policy by successive democratic governments aimed at the
investigation of these cases, the identification and exhumation of mass graves, together
with legal obstacles, have prevented the victims families from obtaining reparation,
locating and recovering the human remains. This paper argues that this state of affairs is
incompatible with international human rights law and Spain should actively engage in the
search for the whereabouts and identification of the bodies with all the available
Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
vehemently denounced militarism in the run-up to the outbreak of the
First World War, but once war was declared the party’s policy was to
support the government and not threaten the war effort. As was
discussed in Chapter 3, the party flirted with various forms of pacifism
in the early 1930s, but this was rejected in the face of the rising threat
of fascism. Certainly the party has tended to be against the use of force
while in opposition, seeing it as resulting in war, but this policy was
discredited by the failure of the non-intervention pact on the SpanishCivilWar
Missing persons and colonial skeletons in South Africa
working in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and in the Missing
Persons Task Team (MPTT). Thanks to Ciraj Rassool, Madeleine Fullard,
and members of a graduate reading group on the dead body – Riedwaan
Moosage, Bianca van Laun, and Aidan Erasmus – for comments and
many stimulating discussions.
This contrasts with a growing literature on issues of memory and materiality, much of which arises from recent SpanishCivilWar exhumations.
See, for example, F. Ferrándiz, ‘Cries and whispers: exhuming and narrating defeat in Spain today’, Journal of Spanish
her children, to find work, to organise legal proceedings,
to appoint a lawyer, confront the police, the administration, the army’ .
SHAT 1H2461/1, note of Commandant Bouraix, 23 January 1959.
Feraoun, Journal, 242–3, 257.
The reassertion of male authority and gender roles on the termination
of conflict can be found in many historical situations: see for example in
relation to the SpanishCivilWar, Mary Nash, Defying Male Civilization:
Women in the SpanishCivilWar (Denver, Colo.: Areden Press, 1995),
and Shirley Mangini, Memories of Resistance: Women’s Voices