Open Access (free)
An actor-network theory perspective

In today’s world, we are offered a constantly expanding number of technologies to integrate into our lives. We now utilise a range of interconnected technologies at work, at home and at leisure. The realm of sport is no exception, where new technologies or enhancements are available to athletes, coaches, scientists, umpires, governing bodies and broadcasters. However, this book argues that in a world where time has become a precious commodity and numerous options are always on offer, functionality is no longer enough to drive their usage within elite sports training, competition and broadcasting. Consistent with an actor-network theory approach as developed by Bruno Latour, John Law, Michele Callon and Annemarie Mol, the book shows how those involved in sport must grapple with a unique set of understandings and connections in order to determine the best combination of technologies and other factors to serve their particular purpose. This book uses a case study approach to demonstrate how there are multiple explanations and factors at play in the use of technology that cannot be reduced to singular explanations like performance enhancement or commercialisation. Specific cases examined include doping, swimsuits, GPS units, Hawk-Eye and kayaks, along with broader areas such as the use of sports scientists in training and the integration of new enhancements in broadcasting. In all cases, the book demonstrates how multiple actors can affect the use or non-use of technology.

Drawing on nearly a decade of wide-ranging, multidisciplinary research undertaken with young people and adults living and working in urban communities in Zambia, this jointly-authored book extends existing understandings of the use of sport to contribute to global development agendas has burgeoned over the last two decades. The book’s locally-centred and contextualized analysis represents an important departure from both the internationalist and evaluation-orientated research that has predominated in global sport for development. Offering wide-ranging historical, political, economic and social contextualization, it examines how a key period in the expansion of the sport for development sector unfolded in Zambia; considers the significance of varying degrees of integration and partnership practices between sport for development and development agencies at different levels; and outlines approaches to the provision of sport for development activities in various communities. Detailed examination of the lives, experiences and responses of young people involved in these activities, drawn from their own accounts, is a key feature of the book. Concluding reflections identify possibilities for enhancing understanding and improving research and evidence through methodologies which ‘localise global sport for development’. The book’s unique approach and content will be highly relevant to academic researchers and students studying sport and development across many different contexts.

Cricket, Canada and the Caribbean diaspora

This book outlines the ways in which sport helps to create transnational social fields that interconnect migrants dispersed across a region known as the Black Atlantic: England, North America and the Caribbean. Many Caribbean men’s stories about their experiences migrating to Canada, settling in Toronto’s urban and suburban neighbourhoods, finding jobs, returning home for visits, and traveling to other diasporic locations involved some contact with a cricket and social club. The cricket ground brings black Canadians together as a unified community, not only to celebrate their homeland cultures or assuage the pain of the “racial terror” that unifies the Black Atlantic, but also to allay the pain of aging in the diaspora. Players and spectators corporeal practices, post-game activities, sport-related travel, as well as music, food, meetings, fundraisers, parties, and shared stories are analysed in this text as resources deployed to maintain the Black Atlantic, that is, to create deterritorialized communities and racial identities; A close look at what goes on before, during, and after cricket matches provides insights into the contradictions and complexities of Afro-diasporic identity performances, the simultaneous representation of sameness and difference among Afro-Caribbean, African-American, Black British, Indo-Caribbean and South-Asian groups in Canada. This book describes twenty-one months of ethnographic empirical evidence of how black identities are gendered, age-dependent and formed relationally, with boundary making (and crossing) as an active process in multicultural Canada.

International, national and community integration

3 Sport as a development partner: international, national and community integration This chapter considers how partnerships and partnership working, in the broadest sense of these terms, are enacted, structured and influential in relation to SfD in Zambia. The significance of partnerships emerged early in our involvement in Zambia, where it soon became apparent that much of the SfD work being undertaken in the country was

in Localizing global sport for development

1 Sport for development in policy, practice and research Sport has a lengthy history of servicing ‘social development’ objectives. The contemporary SfD movement is thus following a well-known tradition that includes the use of sport to support, for example, ‘muscular Christianity’ in the nineteenth century and diverse development aims in the twentieth (Beacom, 2007 ; Kidd, 2011 ; Darnell, 2012 ). The use of sport for these purposes has

in Localizing global sport for development

2 Sport, development and the political-economic context of Zambia This chapter examines how the wider political and economic context in Zambia has been influential in shaping the historical governance of sport and the expansion of the SfD ‘movement’ in the country. As the previous chapter has shown, within the academic literature most attention has been paid to the global expansion of SfD; a further, smaller body of

in Localizing global sport for development

6 Reconciling sport and law The EU has been characterised as a regulatory state (Majone 1996). Embedded within the EU’s constitutional and normative structure is a predisposition for the promulgation and enforcement of rules. In other words, the forces of negative as opposed to positive integration have historically driven the integration process (Pinder 1968, 1993). Knowledge about regulation and not budgets or votes has been the key resource EU officials have striven for. Yet knowledge has a ‘dark side’ – technocracy (Radaelli 1999b: 758) – and this

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
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Which technologies are improved, and how?

When watching sport on a regular basis, it can feel as though the many pieces of technology used in sporting competitions are constantly improving. Commentators draw attention to athletes using the newest type of aerodynamic helmet or carbon fibre bicycle. Sometimes, the technological changes can be so enormous that the sport may barely be recognisable, such as when the America’s Cup sailing competition altered their rules to allow catamarans rather than only single hulls. At other times, it is the

in Sport and technology

are not considered a standard part of sport. This chapter focuses on the introduction of ‘non-sport’ technologies into the sports training environment. It includes two case studies: a study of the use of global positioning systems (GPS) in Australian rules football (AFL) and an examination of the use of technologically constructed hypoxic environments (TCHEs), commonly known as altitude chambers. The previous chapter introduced the concept of enrolment, an ANT idea employed to determine how an actant comes to be

in Sport and technology

-makers must have full knowledge of the rules of the sport and be able to apply their knowledge in split-second decisions made under often very stressful conditions. If they make the wrong decision, they are often blamed for the outcome of the game. Given the pressure that these individuals face and the importance of ensuring accurate results, several sports governing bodies have attempted to increase the accuracy of officiating decisions through implementing new technologies in their sports (Woodward, 2013). These

in Sport and technology