Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

This chapter explores the concept of the state, looking at various theories of the state and identifying its major characteristics and then how far real states measure up to these characteristics. Finally, it examines the issue of whether the state is still as fundamental a political institution as it has been over the past four centuries

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

The Welfare State 2 ➤ Definition of the term ‘Welfare State’ ➤ What is included as part of the Welfare State ➤ Basic principles of the Welfare State ➤ The future of the Welfare State This short chapter is designed to introduce the subject of the Welfare State as a complete concept before we discuss some of its individual elements – education, health and social security – in further chapters. The origins and principles of the Welfare State will be discussed and the changing attitude of the parties and their policy makers to it will be traced. DEFINITION There

in Understanding British and European political issues
Ciarán O’Kelly

Introduction This chapter is about national ties and how they are supposed to act as a glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. A nation-state, so the story goes, is one where all the people in the state are bound together by ties of national solidarity. The solidarity legitimates the state – it tells the citizens why they are members and why it is right for the state to exist

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

appeals to some notion of proceduralism (see below) where what is important is common adherence to just rules rather than the manipulation of outcomes, yet without the prominence that market libertarians give to entitlement, since reciprocity preserves the notion of moral desert (cf. Gauthier, 1986). Procedural justice Here, the most convincing account remains that of Nozick (1974) who contrasts procedural theory with ‘end-state’ theories of justice. Procedural- TZP2 4/25/2005 36 4:50 PM Page 36 After the new social democracy ism is concerned with the means that

in After the new social democracy
Open Access (free)
French clerical reformers and episcopal status
Alison Forrestal

chap 2 22/3/04 12:12 pm Page 50 2 The most perfect state: French clerical reformers and episcopal status As a general council of the church, Trent offered a framework within which a resurgent catholicism could take shape. To a man, its delegates took it for granted that the clergy would lead the laity, and that bishops would supervise and govern all the faithful. While the conciliar decrees were designed to respond, therefore, to the specific abuses and inadequacies of contemporary religion, they drew equally on what were assumed to be eternally applicable

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women
Editor: Shirin M. Rai

The role of national machineries, as a way to promote the status of women, acquired international relevance during the World Conference on the International Women's Year, in Mexico City in 1975. This book reflects Division for the Advancement of Women's (DAW) long-standing interest in the area of national machineries, bringing together the experiences, research and insights of experts. The first part of the book sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the conceptual level. It reflects upon five aspects of democratization: devolution or decentralization; the role of political parties; monitoring and auditing systems; and the importance of increasing the presence of women within institutions of the state and government. The second part is a comparative analysis and sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the political level. A combination of factors, including civil society, state bodies and political actors, need to come together for national machineries to function effectively in the interest of gender equality. Next comes the 'lessons learned' by national machineries in mainstreaming gender. National machineries should have an achievable agenda, an important part of which must be 'a re-definition of gender issues. The third part contains case studies that build upon the specific experiences of national machineries in different countries. The successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming is also discussed.

Raymond Hinnebusch

Primitive state-building State-building is the effort of rulers to institutionalise state structures capable of absorbing expanding political mobilisation and controlling territory corresponding to an identity community. In the Middle East, the flaws built into the process from its origins have afflicted the states with enduring legitimacy deficits (Hudson 1977). Because imperialism drew boundaries that haphazardly corresponded to identity, installed client elites in them and created the power machineries of the new

in The international politics of the Middle East
Exhumations of Soviet-era victims in contemporary Russia
Viacheslav Bitiutckii

5 State secrets and concealed bodies: exhumations of Soviet-era victims in contemporary Russia1 Viacheslav Bitiutckii Introduction This chapter discusses the search for, exhumation, and identification of the remains of victims of mass political repression during the Stalinist Great Terror (1937–38) in the USSR. It does not consider those who died in the concentration camps and prisons of the Gulag system, but concentrates rather on those who were subjected to the severest form of repression, that is, those who were shot following sentencing during judicial or

in Human remains and identification
The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’
Miguel Martínez Lucio

15 Uncertainty and undecidability in the contemporary state: the dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’ Miguel Martínez Lucio Introduction When discussing the state and labour regulations, the debate tends to focus on the role of the law. From a sociological, or politico-sociological, perspective it is often the case that we like to complement such an approach with a greater sensitivity to other forms of representation at the level of the state, such as the role of ‘social dialogue’ and the

in Making work more equal
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations
Ami Pedahzur

or suppress subversive elements. The ‘criminal justice model’, on the other hand, places the onus on the police forces while confining its actions to state criminal legislation, 3 as further elaborated by Crelinsten: In a criminal justice model, the rule of law is paramount, while in the war model, it is the rules of war that prevail. In the criminal justice model, it is the police who exercise the state’s monopoly on the use of violence. The rules of engagement, so to speak, involve the use of minimal force, which requires an exercise of

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence