Open Access (free)
Kitty S. Millet

This article has two aims: to examine the effects of victim proximity to crematoria ashes and ash pits both consciously and unconsciously in a subset of Holocaust survivors, those who were incarcerated at the dedicated death camps of Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, as well as Auschwitz-Birkenau; and to contrast these effects, the subject positions they produce, with their suppression as the basis both for a strategy of survival during incarceration and for a reimagined identity after the war. Within a cohort of four survivors from Rudolf Reder (Belzec), Esther Raab (Sobibor), Jacob Wiernik (Treblinka) and Shlomo Venezia (Auschwitz), I trace the ways in which discrete memories and senses became constitutive in the formation of the subject prior to and after escape – the experience of liberation – so that essentially two kinds of subjects became visible, the subject in liberation and the subject of ashes. In conjunction with these two kinds of subjects, I introduce the compensatory notion of a third path suggested both by H. G. Adler and Anna Orenstein, also Holocaust survivors, that holds both positions together in one space, the space of literature, preventing the two positions from being stranded in dialectical opposition to each other.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
The afterlives of human remains at the Bełzec extermination camp
Zuzanna Dziuban

existing burial pits by covering them with concrete slabs (as was later the case in Treblinka) was presented as the recommended course of action.60 Additionally, a forester’s lodge was erected at the former camp, its 50 50   Human remains in society inhabitants charged with the task of protecting the site from further profanation. The material, symbolic and political transformation of the remains of the Bełzec victims into ‘dead (political) subjects’,61 to borrow Fontein’s phrase, took place in 1963. On 1 December, the memorial landscape fashioned by Henryk

in Human remains in society
Forensic and archaeological approaches to locating the remains of Holocaust victims
Caroline Sturdy Colls

a post-​war phenomenon. During the Holocaust, attempts were made by victims and witnesses to alert the wider world to the crimes being perpetrated by burying or hiding physical evidence. For example, speaking about Treblinka extermination camp, survivor Abraham Goldfarb stated:  ‘we secretly placed in the walls of the graves whole skeletons and we wrote on scraps of paper what the Germans were doing at Treblinka … if one 164 164   Human remains in society day someone looked for the traces of the Nazis’ crimes, they could indeed be found’.3 Many testimonies like

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Portraying the exhumation and reburial of Polish Jewish Holocaust victims in the pages of yizkor books
Gabriel N. Finder

War. The German army entered Żelechów on 14 September 1939, and on the following day the Nazis set fire to the synagogue. During 1940–41 more than 2,000 Jews, mostly from surrounding smaller towns and villages, were resettled in Żelechów. In the fall of 1940 an open ghetto was established there. On 30 September 1942, the ghetto was liquidated and all its inhabitants were deported to Treblinka and gassed there. Only a few hundred Jews managed to flee prior to the liquidation of the ghetto. No Jewish community was reconstituted in Żelechów after the war. Organizations

in Human remains and identification
Open Access (free)
The tales destruction tells
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

made to serve as a political message of ultra-violence, as in Guatemala in the 1980s and in Eastern Europe during the Second World War (see chapter 3, DHR.indb 3 5/15/2014 12:51:03 PM 4  Élisabeth Anstett & Jean-Marc Dreyfus by McConnell). Bodies have also been reused, as resources, giving death and the dead an ultimately utilitarian purpose. Hair was collected at Auschwitz II – Birkenau, and gold teeth at Treblinka.9 Sometimes bodies have reappeared, without the knowledge of the murderers. This was the case with many of the bodies of victims of the Chinese

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
The daily work of Erich Muhsfeldt, chief of the crematorium at Majdanek concentration and extermination camp, 1942–44
Elissa Mailänder

Auschwitz (Witnesses from the Death Zone: The Jewish Special Squad in Auschwitz) (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2005). See also Die Auschwitz-Hefte. Texte der polnischen Zeitschrift ‘Przeglad Lekarski’ über historische, psychische und medizinische Aspekte des Lebens und Sterbens in Auschwitz (The Auschwitz Books. Texts from the Polish Magazine ‘Przeglad Lekarski’ on Historical, Psychiatric and Medical Aspects of Living and Dying in Auschwitz) (Weinheim: Hamburger Institut für Sozialgeschichte, 1987); R. Glazar, Die Falle mit dem grünen Zaun: Überleben in Treblinka

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
Machines of mass incineration in fact, fiction, and forensics
Robert Jan van Pelt

deaths through disease and starvation in the ghettos, they at least welcomed the high mortality. We know that they carefully prepared the massacres by means of shootings. And it took some planning to design and construct the gas chambers in Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and the original gas chambers, those in Auschwitz (the improvised gas chamber of Block 11 and crematorium 1) and Auschwitz-Birkenau (bunkers 1 and 2, which were originally peasant cottages). But real technical ingenuity and advanced engineering skills became important when the SS commissioned the firm of

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

first few years of the post-​war period, the people living next to the actual sites of the extermination camps in Poland dug up and sifted through the soil from Treblinka, Sobibór and Bełzec, creating a local gold-​panning rush that constituted a final profanation. This is shown in the excellent account given by 10 10   Human remains in society Zuzanna Dziuban in her chapter on the spatiality of the death sites in Poland. Yet while these same sites have yielded corpses to be identified and returned to their families, they are also destinations for tour operators

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

immediate military action in the occupied territories as well as the destruction of all nuclear weapons by means of a short-term occupation of Israel (CN 2/93). Another example of anti-Semitic conspiracy thinking was apparent in the many articles on the trial of Ivan Demjanjuk, a Ukrainian-American who was accused of committing war crimes as a Treblinka camp guard during the Second World War. The Israeli court case against Demjanjuk received a lot of attention in the world media as well as in the party paper of the CP’86. From the outset Demjanjuk was depicted in the

in The ideology of the extreme right
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

] Holocaust A term applied to the actions taken by the Nazi government in the Third Reich to physically eliminate the Jewish population, first in Germany, then in territories occupied by Germany during the war, by processes of mass killings, especially in concentration camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka. It has been estimated that as many as 6 million Jews were killed by the policy of genocide adopted by the Hitler

in The politics today companion to West European Politics