challenged. The ground gained by so called ‘illiberal
democracy’ is prodigious, not merely in terms of the number of countries where illiberal
politics is alive and thriving, many of which are in the West (the US, much of the EU, the UK)
but in terms of the creeping legitimacy that attends right-wing solutions to ongoing social and
political problems. This is nowhere truer than in the major new power in the international
system, China, where a version of state-controlled capitalism co-exists alongside a principled
rejection of liberalism.
from want and freedom from fear.
The Dumbarton Oaks Conference took place in Washington, D.C., from August to October 1944.
Delegations from the US, the UK, the Soviet Union and China gathered to discuss plans for a
post-war international organisation. The United Nations then came into existence in October
1945, when 51 countries ratified its charter in San Francisco.
In The Great Transformation , Karl Polanyi refers to a double movement that
occurs in the development of the ‘Market
Holling’s often quoted article on ecological resilience is a critique of
equilibrium theory based upon research on predator/prey relations in the wild ( Holling, 1973 ).
In 2010, for example, the UK government established a Behavioural Insights Team (also known
as the Nudge Unit). Since 2014, it has existed as a ‘social purpose company’ that
is partly owned by the Cabinet Office, its employees and the data-innovation charity Nesta.
Except for limited pattern
, Tony Redmond reflects on his long career as professor
and practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and founder of UK-Med, an NGO that
provides international emergency humanitarian medical assistance and which hosts the UK
International Emergency Trauma Register (UKIETR) and UK International Emergency Medical
Register (UKIEMR). He questions the usefulness of seeking innovation in medical
humanitarianism but advocates to aim for the same duty of care that one would offer in
treat such campaigns as critical risks to their work and ethical
beliefs, and to conceptions of global solidarity.
The second field report by Davidson focuses on the issue of mental health that is often
neglected in aid and humanitarian interventions. Ironically, as one of its last acts
before being disbanded by the UK government, the Department for International
Development (DfID) published what the report regards as a useful theory of change for
mental health, with pathways to achieve desired
( Jaffe, 2018 : 81). Faiza Shaheen, a
former employee of the UK branch of Save the Children (SCUK) speaking in an
interview on BBC Daily Politics in February 2018, said that many
people at SCUK ‘knew about these rumours and for the most part, people knew
them to be true’ which ‘made a lot of women feel unsafe, not just the
ones who were directly assaulted’; in fact there was a culture of
‘predatory behaviour’ in which women had to work to ‘keep
the challenge of disinformation more acute today: the behaviour
of political elites. More specifically, the willingness of leaders, even those in supposedly
liberal democratic states, such as the US, UK and Italy, to lie to the public or disregard
evidence. Donald Trump is, of course, the most famous example of this phenomenon. According to
the Washington Post fact checkers, in his first 600 days in office, President
Trump made 5,001 false or misleading claims ( Washington Post , 2018 ). This disregard for facts is said to have
hospitals there. Consequently, he was under a high risk of being detained and he had to give up his medical training. Between 2013 and 2016, Dr Ekzayez worked for Save the Children, leading their health response in north-west Syria. In the same period, he was heavily involved in the polio vaccination and in strengthening the health system in the region through supporting the establishment of Idleb Health Directorate. Late in 2016, he moved to the UK to do a master’s in Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). Between 2017 and 2020 he was
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
research presented in this paper emerges from interviews and fieldwork conducted
between 2016 and 2019 as part the Architectures of Displacement project, which was
funded by the Economic and Social Research Council of the UK and managed from the
Refugee Studies Centre in Oxford. 2
In the next section of this article, I set out a series of common criticisms of
architecture by humanitarians, pointing to frequently unrealistic utopianism and a
lack of practicality. In the second
processes of overlapping displacement.
This article draws on research generously funded by UK’s AHRC and ESRC (Grant Ref.
AH/P005438/1 – see www.refugeehosts.org ). Thanks are due to Yousif M. Qasmiyeh, Estella Carpi, Juliano
Fiori and the article’s two anonymous reviewers for their helpful feedback on earlier
See UNRWA (2018c) .
The cuts and demands for reform were welcomed by some, including selected Israeli politicians
and media, who echoed