Evolution of the normative basis

preferences of key actors interacted in intra-state peacekeeping environments in the early 1960s, and juxtapose the ensuing normative synthesis with the ideational attributes of the 1990s, which took shape in a different historical structural setting. Emerging normative basis on the eve of double ‘peaks’ The emergence of UN peacekeeping missions can be traced almost as far back as

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

humanitarian agencies travelling with military escorts as a condition of access to particular areas ( Bradley, 2016 : 148). Where UN peacekeeping forces are present, UN agencies (and sometimes international NGOs) may travel to unsecure areas under their escort, as has been the case with UNHCR in the Democratic Republic of Congo, for example ( Bradley, 2016 : 61). Notably, the main guidelines on the use of armed escorts by humanitarians specifically exclude consideration of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

‘plausible deniability’ consistent with neoliberal principles that stress privatisation and the shrinking of public bureaucracy. This provides a convenient answer to the question of what is being done and a simple way to maintain an arms-length relationship between engagement in messy political problems and denial (give money, award projects, do not do it yourself, blame others for failure). UN peacekeeping operations have been used in a similar way, as have international criminal tribunals. All suggest that something is ‘being done’, but in most

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts has evolved unevenly but appreciably in terms of both objectives and authority, with the shift in the pattern of prescribed functions emerging as one important indicator of this change. Objectives were conceptualised here with reference to four key principles enshrined in the UN Charter, namely peace and security, state

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

normative basis of UN peacekeeping and the UN’s evolving role in world politics. The literature on the UN’s Cambodia experience has rightly pointed to the ‘comprehensive’ nature of the mission. What is less well understood is the normative meaning and implications of this comprehensiveness, which is what this chapter seeks to elucidate. Here we explore the local, regional and global interests

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
The analytical framework

would be likely to press for a specific course of UN action. Those which supply personnel for a given UN peacekeeping operation would also require attention, since they could exert influence both in the peacekeeping theatre and on the floor of the General Assembly. Regional IGOs almost always express opinions as to how intra-state conflicts in their respective regions should be handled and

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Problematising the normative connection

assume a special identity and role in world politics. A closer examination of the evolution of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts – especially between the two most active and critical periods of UN peacekeeping: the early 1960s and the early 1990s – suggests that the role assigned to the UN in intra-state conflict management begs more than the explanations offered so far. It suggests in the first

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change

T HE CYPRUS CONFLICT , too, emerged out of a colonial context. In Cyprus, some 6,500 peacekeepers were deployed at a time when, as a result of the Congo experience, several international actors were sceptical of UN peacekeeping. 1 As of 2002, the Cyprus mission was still continuing. However, its nature had changed considerably since the Turkish intervention in 1974

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds

intervention in Guatemala in 1954 and the Soviet intervention in Hungary in 1956. 49 Strategic bipolarity would make it practically impossible for the UN to intervene in conflicts, be they inter- or intra-state, if they were located within the US and Soviet spheres of influence, or in some way cut across the interests and priorities of either Washington or Moscow. The idea of UN peacekeeping matured almost at

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change