Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

This chapter examines specific ideological and aesthetic dimensions of the representation of children in American films produced during and directly after the Second World War in relation to the promotion and operations of the United Nations. 1 It addresses how pitiable and vulnerable children from the world’s warzones – specifically groups of orphaned, abandoned and injured children from

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
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This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Heikki Patomäki

Introduction Kosovo is not a security issue for Europe only: it must be seen in the context of global political processes. In this chapter, I argue that Kosovo was an episode in the long-term process of the domestication and marginalisation of the United Nations (UN) by the United States. These relations of domination are underpinned by Manichean dichotomous myths of good

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
and
Lauren Harris

activities to the DPRK, which has varied depending on the political climate. In recent years, the international humanitarian system has been subject to restrictions in the form of unilateral and United Nations Security Council (UNSC) sanctions. As of 2017, Americans must also apply for US government permission for DPRK travel. This paper goes beyond the policy of sanctions exemptions and asks how sanctions are affecting humanitarian work in practice. The following subsection reviews the methodology used in the research. A literature review rounds out the introduction

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan
and
Otto Farkas

Relief Assistance of the United Nations, Including Special Economic Assistance: Strengthening of the Coordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations , https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Secretary-General%27s%20Report%20for%20WHS%202016%20%28Advance%20Unedited%20Draft%29.pdf (accessed 20 October 2016) . Knox Clarke , P. and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Gender Norm Change during Displacement?
Michelle Lokot

Introduction With the increased focus on gender across the humanitarian sector, gender analysis has become more important to humanitarian actors, including international non-governmental organisations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and local NGOs. Promoting ‘gender equality and women’s empowerment’ often motivates humanitarian actors, however there is no consensus on what this concept means or how it is measured ( Cornwall and Rivas

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean
and
Michaël Neuman

harbingers of disease recalls not only the coffin ships of the Irish famine but the xenophobia and restrictive border controls that the arrival of the ‘unwashed masses’ ostensibly justified. The sudden appearance of cholera in post-earthquake Haiti might have its origins in the sanitary negligence of United Nations peacekeepers, but the subsequent abdication of responsibility was entirely political ( Katz, 2016 ). While the murder of polio vaccinators in Pakistan is cloaked in anti-Western conspiracy

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Negotiated Exceptions at Risk of Manipulation
Maelle L’Homme

Introduction Pope Benedict XVI, Russian President Vladimir Putin and United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres have at least one thing in common: they each, at different times and in reference to different contexts, called for or ordered the opening of so-called ‘humanitarian corridors’. Whether it was to evacuate wounded civilians in South Ossetia in 2008, to implement a daily ceasefire in Syria’s Eastern Ghouta in 2018, or to assist populations in Ethiopia’s Tigray region in 2021, respectively, the notion is now so frequently invoked that it goes

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action 1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

‘other’ ( Fast, 2016 : 114). The principle of impartiality, also vital to humanitarian action, can also be challenged by cultures who may have diverging ideas of who deserves relief, as it was the case in Darfur ( De Waal, 1989 : chapter 8). Humanitarianism is also a culture committed to gender equality, not only in its operations (e.g. IASC, 2017 ) but also internally (e.g. United Nations, 2017 ). Thus, its

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

Freedoms, set out in 1941, provided particularly American inspiration for the post-war development of liberal global governance. 1 But the principles of great-power trusteeship and balancing, reflected in the Dumbarton Oaks proposals in 1944, were decisive in the creation of the United Nations. 2 Despite the early proliferation of liberal institutions under the aegis of the UN, Cold War prerogatives undermined cosmopolitan aspirations for world government. Cancelling each other out in the Security Council, the US and the Soviet Union

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs