Open Access (free)
A new labour market segmentation approach

This book presents new theories and international empirical evidence on the state of work and employment around the world. Changes in production systems, economic conditions and regulatory conditions are posing new questions about the growing use by employers of precarious forms of work, the contradictory approaches of governments towards employment and social policy, and the ability of trade unions to improve the distribution of decent employment conditions. Designed as a tribute to the highly influential contributions of Jill Rubery, the book proposes a ‘new labour market segmentation approach’ for the investigation of issues of job quality, employment inequalities, and precarious work. This approach is distinctive in seeking to place the changing international patterns and experiences of labour market inequalities in the wider context of shifting gender relations, regulatory regimes and production structures.

Maria Karamessini and Damian Grimshaw

per cent, respectively (in cumulative terms). The multi-layered and coordinated system of collective bargaining led to important wage inequalities, especially between the public and private sectors, but at the same time reinforced the middle of the wage distribution through national bargaining on sector and occupational minima and established relatively low inequality in the bottom half of the wage distribution; the pre-crisis Kaitz level was still higher than the EU average in 2008 (Figure 17.3). As for the real value of the minimum wage (purchasing power), this

in Making work more equal
Implications for jobs and inequality
Rosemary Batt and Eileen Appelbaum

or oppose the collective demands of labor? Do networks promote new divisions and new inequalities among workers? (Grimshaw et al., 2005: 40) These remain key questions today in the analysis of networked forms of production. Where is value created and how and where is it extracted? Does outsourcing deliver on promises of increased efficiency and, if so, do workers share in  productivity gains? How are workers allocated among different organisations in an inter-firm network? How does this affect the quality of jobs, wage  growth, wage inequality and the power of

in Making work more equal
From an enabling towards a disabling state?
Gerhard Bosch and Steffen Lehndorff

. Minimum wages, on the other hand, are generally below the low-wage threshold (less than twothirds of the median wage) and therefore compress wages only in the lower deciles of the income distribution. Research in many countries has produced similar results. In their survey of 49 studies on collective agreements and wage inequality in recent decades in both developed and developing countries, Hayter and Weinberg (2011) show that wage inequality in the economy as a whole is reduced by collective agreements. Certainly it would be desirable if the trade unions were in a

in Making work more equal
Introduction and overview
Damian Grimshaw, Colette Fagan, Gail Hebson and Isabel Tavora

time ­adjustments which include measures to foster men’s involvement in care) ÿ Support for stronger trade union mobilisation and representation ÿ Investment in public sector employment Theoretical implications for policy and practice Likely characteristics of inequalities Low pay? • Diverse minimum wage intersections with collective bargaining and social protection systems influence low wage inequalities • Varied ‘participative standards’ shape wage bargaining power • Low-wage workforce composition varies with household structures, VET systems and migration

in Making work more equal
Theories and evidence
Josep Banyuls and Albert Recto

the collective bargaining model, opened new potentialities for employer policy and practice. The legislation grants privileged status to the company agreement and therefore provides new ways for companies to detach themselves from the conditions collectively agreed at sector and regional levels. This offers new opportunities to the myriad small and medium-sized businesses with scarce union representation for introducing labour conditions à la carte, and of generally increasing wage inequality and differences in labour conditions. While it is still early to assess

in Making work more equal
A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2001), p. 187. B. Nolan, B. Maitre, D. O’Neill and O. Sweetman, The Distribution of Income in Ireland (Dublin: Oak Tree Press, 2000), p. 31. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2001 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 182. A. Barrett, T. Callan and B. Nolan, ‘Rising wage inequality, returns to education and labour market institutions: evidence from Ireland’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 37:1 (1999), p. 84. B. Nolan and G. Hughes, Low Pay, the Earnings Distribution and Poverty in Ireland, working

in The end of Irish history?
Australia, France and Sweden compared
Dominique Anxo, Marian Baird and Christine Erhel

universalism, egalitarianism and individual rights. The Swedish model is also founded on a strong political commitment to the goal of full employment. Sweden stands out as providing one type of societal system based on high employment rates, with only a small gender gap; a high incidence of dual-earner households; extensive and generous family policies; strong welfare support systems for childcare, parental leave and elderly care; and egalitarian wage structures, including relatively low gender wage inequality. Furthermore, the overall political context, which is

in Making work more equal
Annamaria Simonazzi

insecurity and higher job strain (especially the low-skilled). The dynamics of wage inequality depicted in the OECD job quality index must be seen against a context of falling ‘average’ earnings. Additionally, most of the jobs lost during the crisis were predominantly low-paid (Istat, 2015: 157). These two factors result in a deceptive increase in earnings quality. In effect, like all other ‘crisis’ countries (but also the UK, see Blundell et al., 2014), between 2010 and 2016 Italy suffered a reduction in real wages (Figure 14.2). An important factor has been the

in Making work more equal
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

public debt using innovative ways of financing public goods, Fourth, there were regular refinements of the agreement between employers and trade unions, leading to wage restraint and a moderation of wage inequality. A main theme was tax reform. The reform of 1990 lowered tax rates, while 1999 saw a further reduction in rates, and shifted the tax burden from workers and employers towards energy

in The Third Way and beyond