Postsocialist, post-conflict, postcolonial?
Author: Catherine Baker

This book explains theoretical work in postcolonial and postsocialist studies to offer a novel and distinctive insight into how Yugoslavia is configured by, and through, race. It presents the history of how ideas of racialised difference have been translated globally in Yugoslavia. The book provides a discussion on the critical race scholarship, global historical sociologies of 'race in translation' and south-east European cultural critique to show that the Yugoslav region is deeply embedded in global formations of race. It considers the geopolitical imagination of popular culture; the history of ethnicity; and transnational formations of race before and during state socialism, including the Non-Aligned Movement. The book also considers the post-Yugoslav discourses of security, migration, terrorism and international intervention, including the War on Terror and the refugee crisis. It elaborates how often-neglected aspects of the history of nationhood and migration reveal connections that tie the region into the global history of race. The book also explains the linkage between ethnic exclusivism and territory in the ethnopolitical logic of the Bosnian conflict and in the internationally mediated peace agreements that enshrined it: 'apartheid cartography'. Race and whiteness remained perceptible in post-war Bosnian identity discourses as new, open-ended forms of post-conflict international intervention developed.

Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

imperatives of the New Public Management. And NGOs used these reforms to accelerate the professionalisation of the aid sector ( Fiori et al ., 2016 ). But at the turn of the millennium, there were indications of a downturn in the influence of humanitarian ideas on Western geostrategy. The strategic value of humanitarian intervention diminished as the US launched its totalising war on terror. Humanitarianism was little more than an afterthought to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Since then, despite the continued rise in donations to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

public statements to justify ‘humanitarian interventions’. 3 And then came the war on terror, and with it the militarisation of humanitarian action. With the military desperate to win the hearts and minds of local populations, it became imperative for humanitarians to distinguish themselves from western governments and other humanitarian actors. Increasing local visibility and gaining acceptance now entered the MSF lexicon, and the organisation made a big push

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

conflicts, which were kept in check by the superpowers, making the combatants accessible, at least in theory, to humanitarian efforts. ‘Civilians are not simply the victims of conflicts, they are the very target of conflicts; this is a significant change, at least with regard to the twentieth century ’, the director of operations for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said in 1999 ( Tauxe, 1999 ; emphasis added). With the launch of the ‘War on Terror

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

solidarity with its victims. For a couple of decades it was successful in publicly challenging Western foreign policy in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia ( Duffield, 2007 : 51–4). Having once exercised a moral leadership, however, after a long struggle against donor absorption and UN control, an international direct humanitarian engagement finally yielded amid the horrors of Iraq and Syria. The War on Terror imposed limitations. Compared to the 1970s and 1980s, humanitarian agencies found their political room for manoeuvre significantly

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

. Jolly , S. ( 2011 ), ‘ Why Is Development Work So Straight? Heteronormativity in the International Development Industry ’, Development in Practice , 21 : 1 , 18 – 28 . Kassem , R. ( 2013 ), ‘ Gendered Erasure in the Global “War on Terror”: An Unmasked Interrogation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

time when Hitler used US race laws as a model for the Third Reich ( Whitman, 2017 ), or to slavery and genocide against Native Americans, or forward again to the use of mass incarceration by liberals in the US more recently ( Murakawa, 2014 ). We can add torture by the British government in Aden and Northern Ireland and more recently, as we well know, US torture in the ‘war on terror’. These are just the examples that come to mind. There are many more. Yet, having said all of that, it remains a core liberal belief that, broadly speaking

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

: MSF CRASH . UNHCR ( n.d. ), Humanitarian Evacuations in Violence and Armed Conflict . Geneva : United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees . Weissman , F. ( 2011 ), ‘ Silence heals…. From the Cold War to the War on Terror, MSF Speaks Out: A Brief History ’, in Magone

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From Afghanistan to Iraq
Kerry Longhurst

spats and divisions within Europe over US policy towards Iraq revealed, in a very vivid way, the limits to and peculiarities of Germany’s approach to the use of force. This chapter continues the analysis of the evolution of German security policy, with a focus on the role of the armed forces between 2000 and 2003. This time-frame takes in Germany’s leadership role in Macedonia, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, as well as the US-led war on terror as its enlargement to include Iraq. German security policy during this time exhibited traits of both old and new

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

 alone its later manifestation suggested by the ‘War on Terror’. Stone’s early life and career were dominated by the effects of Vietnam. Much later with Nixon (1995), Stone was still piecing together his personal and cinematic treatise on what the country and the conflict meant to himself and his fellow Americans –​and his work has returned to that territory and its wider Cold War ramifications time and again. However, there has been a shift too. His post-​9/​11 films, Alexander (2004), World Trade Center (2006), W. (2008) and Savages (2012) also had plenty to say about

in The cinema of Oliver Stone