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Visions of episcopacy in seventeenth-century France

This book explores how conceptions of episcopacy (government of a church by bishops) shaped the identity of the bishops of France in the wake of the reforming Council of Trent (1545–63). It demonstrates how the episcopate, initially demoralised by the Wars of Religion, developed a powerful ideology of privilege, leadership and pastorate that enabled it to become a flourishing participant in the religious, political and social life of the ancien regime. The book analyses the attitudes of Tridentine bishops towards their office by considering the French episcopate as a recognisable caste, possessing a variety of theological and political principles that allowed it to dominate the French church.

Open Access (free)
Raiding war and globalization in the early modern world
Brian Sandberg

often overlapped and intersected in particular regions during specific conflicts. I will argue that early modern French raiding practices did not represent a distinct ‘way of war’, but instead exhibited broader global patterns of raiding in this transitional period, suggesting new ways of conceptualizing raiding war throughout the early modern period. Confessional boundaries and borderlands raiding in southern France Catholic and Calvinist armed forces engaged in pervasive raiding in the confessionally mixed regions of France during the French Wars of Religion (1562

in A global history of early modern violence
Open Access (free)
Practices, conflicts, and impact in the sixteenth century
Philippe Rogger

at the pension practices and the friction caused by this flow of money on various levels by focusing on the example of France: conflicts abounded over distribution due to French pensions during the Milanese War, and the relations between the cantons and their western ally were at times severely tested during the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) because of outstanding pensions. Both The Netherlands and Switzerland Compared, ed. by André Holenstein, Thomas Maissen, and Maarten Prak (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), pp. 29–50 (pp. 29–35). Up to 1798

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
The revolt of Cairo and Revolutionary violence
Joseph Clarke

violence 229 that, in the cultural memory of the confessional conflicts that had convulsed France throughout the early modern period. Rather than interpreting Revolutionary violence as unequivocally modern, let alone ‘profoundly secular’, focusing on these soldiers’ experiences in the 1790s presents instead lines of continuity that reach back from the repression in Cairo to the civil war in France, a civil war that contemporaries repeatedly conceptualized by reference to the wars of religion. The men of the Revolution may have repudiated the French past, but they knew

in A global history of early modern violence
Open Access (free)
The revolt of democratic Christianity and the rise of public opinion
S.J. Barnett

a polity in direct contrast with that of absolutism. Allied with the monarch, French orthodox Catholicism – the state Church and staunch advocate of the divine-right-to-rule theory – had an interest in ensuring that the Huguenot representative polity was not allowed to corrupt the Gallican (French Catholic) Church or the noble parlements. That fear was not groundless paranoia. Although they were a minority and principally confined to the south, the Huguenots had from the beginning been implicitly political, and the result was the sixteenth-century Wars of Religion

in The Enlightenment and religion
Alison Forrestal

into the wars of religion (1562–98) which were to cripple it for virtually the remainder of the century. Additionally, the episcopate itself was burdened with several institutional abuses that made the implementation of reforms extremely difficult for even the most dedicated of prelates. In the first place, research has pointed to the geographical dislocation and economic difficulties caused by the wars of religion and to the resulting difficulties for bishops in fulfilling the functions of their office.6 In 1594, Cardinal de Joyeuse complained that two of the eight

in Fathers, pastors and kings

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Historicist-inspired diagnoses of modernity, 1935
Herman Paul

elements in particular. In Ehrenberg’s view, this provoked a ‘war of religion’ between European Christianity and the ‘antitheism’ that was Communism. 32 The ‘anti’ in ‘antitheism’ conveyed that Ehrenberg not simply conceived of Communism as a return to pre-Christian paganism. Although he believed Communism to be ‘the most pagan paganism that has ever existed’, he emphasized that it was pagan in a modern key, unimaginable without the ‘Occidental spirit’ on which it drew and against which it reacted. 33 In the 1940s

in Post-everything
Open Access (free)
Svante Norrhem
and
Erik Thomson

, and Prague. The dynastic ambitions of Charles and his successors depended upon international bankers capable of using his realm’s revenues to raise credit from private capital holders in a variety of financial centres both inside and outside his jurisdiction and finally using specialized bankers to move these funds to realms where he could pay his armies.7 These mechanisms could be used to pay subsidies – including to the Guise early in the French wars of religion and the French Catholic league in the 1590s. French kings from François I to Louis XIV attempted to

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Some philosophical obstacles and their resolution
David Heyd

the aftermath of the bloodshed of the wars of religion in the early modern period,12 but can also explain the development of the capacity to tolerate in children. Toleration is, however, trickier than compromise, since it requires the development of a sense of an independent value – that of respect for others. Education to toleration consists in the formation of a capacity to see beliefs and actions not in the light of some impersonally validating criteria but as parts in a coherent whole, constituting a moral personality or character and being the consequence of a

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies