Kerry Longhurst

Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 25 2 Stunde Null and the ‘construction’ of West German strategic culture Interest politics alone . . . cannot account for Germany’s pacifistic military security policy, nor does it provide a satisfactory explanation of Bonn’s approach to national sovereignty or its aversion to unilateralism. One must look beyond material and political interests to the politics of national identity in post war Germany, which unfolded in searing domestic political debates over rearmament, reunification, and

in Germany and the use of force
Author: Kerry Longhurst

Mobilising the concept of strategic culture, this study develops a framework for understanding developments in German security policy between 1990 and 2003. Germany's contemporary security policies are characterised by a peculiar mix of continuity and change. From abstention in the first Gulf war, to early peacekeeping missions in Bosnia in the early 1990s and a full combat role in Kosovo in 1999, the pace of change in German security policy since the end of the Cold War has been breathtaking. The extent of this change has recently, however, been questioned, as seen most vividly in Berlin's response to ‘9/11’ and its subsequent stalwart opposition to the US-led war on terrorism in Iraq in 2003. Beginning with a consideration of the notion of strategic culture, the study refines and adapts the concept to the case of Germany through a consideration of aspects of the rearmament of West Germany. It then critically evaluates the transformation of the role of the Bundeswehr up to and including the war on terrorism, together with Germany's troubled efforts to enact defence reforms, as well as the complex politics surrounding the policy of conscription. By focusing on both the ‘domestics’ of security policy decision making as well as the changing and often contradictory expectations of Germany's allies, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the role played by Germany's particular strategic culture in shaping policy choices. It concludes by pointing to the vibrancy of Germany's strategic culture.

German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Klaus Neumann

). Neher even offered to send a bus to Italy to pick them up. In early July, he told a journalist that when he walks through his town, he is often stopped, because Rottenburg residents want to know when the refugees will arrive and how many of them the town is ‘allowed’ to host ( Materla, 2019 ). The Bündnis Städte Sicherer Häfen is better represented in West Germany than in East Germany, where more people are apprehensive about, if not openly hostile towards, migrants in general and asylum seekers in particular. In West Germany, a disproportionately large number of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

exhibit that it opened after headquarters had moved to Grosvenor Crescent in 2000. Today, it organizes alternating temporary exhibits that point to key moments in British Red Cross history or illuminate special aspects like the Black British experience within the movement. In (West) Germany, meanwhile, collectors in Pinneberg and Geislingen started out with showing small displays as early as the 1960s. In 1979, a traveling exhibit on Red Cross history opened in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Core historical concepts reconsidered
Adrian Zimmermann

, the international socialist discussion on ‘plannism’ in the 1930s; and third, in the 1970s, attempts to strengthen ‘co-determination’ in West Germany and to introduce wage earners’ funds by the Swedish trade unions. The German experience Economic democracy is indeed often closely associated with the German system of co-determination. I would argue, however, that German-style co-determination can only realise a very limited democratisation of the economy. In essence, ‘co-determination’ refers to the involvement of employee representatives in company decision

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
The past as prologue
Kerry Longhurst

Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 1 Introduction: the past as prologue This book is inspired by the often puzzling array of continuities and changes that has characterised German security policy since unification in 1990. Change has been manifest most profoundly in the lifting of the legal and political barriers which had formerly curtailed the use of the West German armed forces, a transformation which arguably reached its zenith in Germany’s military contribution to the war in Kosovo in 1999. Since then, German perspectives

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

of Franco-​German reconciliation. The meaning of the German word, Wiedergutmachung, encompasses a wide range of acts that at their root express a desire to provide indemnification for loss. In the context of post-​1945 West Germany, the term is associated with the government’s reparations to the victims of National Socialism.7 Consequently, the starting point 142 142   Human remains in society of much of the existent historiography focusing on West Germans’ post-​war efforts to come to grips with the legacies of National Socialism is when Chancellor Konrad

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

Open Access (free)
Germany, the use of force and the power of strategic culture
Kerry Longhurst

questions concerns identification: what is German strategic culture? The second is about change: to what extent and in what form did change in the external security environment after 1989–90 impact on German strategic culture? The third relates to behaviour: in what ways has strategic culture affected behaviour and shaped policy choices? Identifying Germany’s strategic culture In identifying West Germany’s strategic culture I began by characterising its formative period, during which all previous values, beliefs and practices regarding the use of force were rendered

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

States into open confrontation or the abandonment of a slowly achieved, bipolar stability, which guaranteed them both a dominant influence over events in their respective ‘spheres of interest’. Major Western European countries MUP_Torbion_02_Ch2 13 22/9/03, 12:32 pm 14 Destination Europe such as West Germany, France and the United Kingdom also saw certain advantages in the situation. Europe between the superpowers By the early 1950s, post-war reconstruction in Western Europe was virtually complete. In the Soviet-controlled part it would take much longer due to

in Destination Europe