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The challenge of Eurasian security governance

Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.

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 alone its later manifestation suggested by the ‘War on Terror’. Stone’s early life and career were dominated by the effects of Vietnam. Much later with Nixon (1995), Stone was still piecing together his personal and cinematic treatise on what the country and the conflict meant to himself and his fellow Americans –​and his work has returned to that territory and its wider Cold War ramifications time and again. However, there has been a shift too. His post-​9/​11 films, Alexander (2004), World Trade Center (2006), W. (2008) and Savages (2012) also had plenty to say about

in The cinema of Oliver Stone

2504Chap4 7/4/03 12:39 pm Page 69 4 Eurasia and the transnational terrorist threats to Atlantic security Phil Williams The terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were not only the most audacious and successful terrorist attacks the world has yet seen, but also marked the maturation of what had been described as the ‘new terrorism’. It was a maturation in several senses. In the first place it revealed that trends identified by astute specialists such as Walter Laqueur, Bruce Hoffman and Ian Lesser were, in fact, well

in Limiting institutions?
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), and just some unknown capacity to spot the trends and desires of wider society which then can be communicated through a story or historical period, were no longer as much of a vital confluence as they once were in Stone’s filmmaking. Alexander (2004) and World Trade Center (2006) seemed perfectly in line with tastes and predilections for the return of the ‘sword-​and-​sandals’ historical epic and, after 2005, a harder-​edged, more resonant assessment of the nation five years on from 9/​11. These were productions that followed in the wake of successes such as Ridley

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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engage in dialogue while not forgetting the ruptures that accompany difference. A slow, meticulous process of remaking occurred in New York City after September 11. Gangs of firefighters and others worked in the recovery effort, sifting through the rubble left after the collapse of the World Trade Center in Manhattan.47 In the early pictures, we see them working in human chains, moving the rubble piece by piece, searching for human remains. The workers in New York were endeavouring to separate the remains of the built, insentient structure from what was left of

in Change and the politics of certainty
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as an atrocity and others as a tragedy, what is to be done? With a few exceptions, scholars concerned with so-called international questions do not seem to have engaged with Grenfell much if at all: presumably because they see it as a local or purely national event.6 It has been left to academics working on architecture, housing, regulation, local government, law, criminology and social policy. That was not the case with the events at the World Trade Center in New York, which were immediately taken up by international relations scholars as requiring their attention

in Change and the politics of certainty
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within Hollywood did have an impact on Stone in the 2000s. In World Trade Center and W., the perspectives on 9/​11 and the Bush administration were remarked on for their lack of polemical bite. More visceral and acerbic critiques including War on Terror and Jawbreaker were developed, but ultimately faltered for want of available funding. This was certainly evidence of what Stone and many other observers saw as the prevailing neo-​conservative cultural narrative about the necessity and justification of the ‘War on Terror’. However, the mothballed scripts also provided

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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to 9/11 Memorial this way’. I turn around. Hoardings surrounding the construction site opposite seem to be showing what it will look like: ‘Shopping and Dining at the World Trade Center’, they announce. OK. So this is going to be the best shopping mall in the world. A shopping mall to beat all shopping malls. How great the US is. I am in need of a pause. The Starbucks on the corner is still there – I enter, order and sit. People around occupied with their devices. It is quiet. After a while I resume. Walk towards Greenwich Street, where the entrance to the memorial

in Change and the politics of certainty
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certain times on television. For the last five to seven years everyone has been under pressure to make PG-​13 rather than R. World Trade Center was a PG-​13, which was a very violent movie about a grim subject. It was however a family-​oriented movie with good perceived values. The violence was modified so that the viewer does not see overly crushed limbs. There were heroic true stories, and so the film got a PG-​13 despite the violence. This move to PG-​13 is driven by commercial pressures. Studios will not make the movie if it has certain threatening elements in it

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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4 Love Introduction I liked Heaven and Earth and Alexander for their tenderness. I dedicated both to my mother for that reason.1 With the exception of U Turn, all of my films have an aura of optimism about them. In World Trade Center it is feelings of family that help pull the people out of the hole. In W. Laura Bush is a binding force. In Wall Street love is also important. U Turn demonstrates the problem of isolation.2 In the opening scenes of Salvador (1986), Richard Boyle (James Woods) is arrested for multiple traffic offences and then bailed by his friend

in The cinema of Oliver Stone