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From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister

attention to the WTO [the World Trade Organisation]. He focused much more on the Trans-Pacific Partnership than global agreements. The Republicans also invested in the FTAA [Free Trade Area of the Americas], but, in my opinion, there was more commitment to economic multilateralism under Bush than under Obama. With another Republican president, the pendulum might have swung back anyway, but it is swinging fast with Trump. Now, I am not sure which sectors of American society or the American establishment this can benefit. For large corporations, finance

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)

ratification of the US–Russia START I Treaty reducing intercontinental nuclear missiles; the entry into force of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty limiting troop levels all over Europe; and NATO’s Partnership for Peace programme, also including Russia. The European Union’s Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) collapsed in 1993 but was revived in a more flexible form, permitting plans for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) to proceed. The conclusion of the Uruguay Round and the establishment in 1995 of the World Trade Organisation meant a major push for Europe toward

in Destination Europe

This chapter seeks to identify the main determinants of the European Union (EU) trade policy in relation to the developing countries. It asks why the EU has adopted trade liberalisation rather than any other option for the future of its relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states, and in stark contrast to the previous policies. The chapter looks at the general policy environment in which EU policy towards the Lomé countries has been made. It then looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution and response to the phenomenon referred to here in shorthand as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this, which is reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The chapter provides an analysis of the political interests at stake in the trade liberalisation debate.

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
The potential and limits of EU development cooperation policy

This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in this book. The book assesses the record of development cooperation from the Treaty of Rome to Lomé, and beyond to Cotonou. It also assesses the implications of the trends identified for future development policy and to conceptualise the role of European Union (EU) external action in the realm of development. Development policy constitutes a key aspect of EU foreign policy. The negotiations for future African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)-EU trade aim to create free trade areas between the European Community (EC) and sub-regions of the ACP group. The Cotonou Agreement proposes finally to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agenda.

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)

Intergovernmental Conference JHA Justice and Home Affairs (pillar of the EU) NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation OEEC Organisation for European Economic Co-operation OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCE Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe QMV Qualified Majority Voting SEA Single European Act TEU Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) UN (see UNO) UNO United Nations Organisation WEU Western European Union WTO World Trade Organisation Miscellaneous

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
How anarchism still matters

intervention that unaccountable corporate bodies such as the World Trade Organisation are having on everyday life. The spaces that open up as a result of the contradictions and complexities of social life are also important in realising the potential that can be actualised through considering popular culture as an area where anarchism matters. To fully appreciate these possibilities, along with many other areas of likely intervention and influence, we suggest that the kind of anarchism (or even anarchisms) that is required for the future should be a non-dogmatic, flexible

in Changing anarchism
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Europe’s ‘zero hour’

the US Senate and so had to be turned into a simple ‘agreement’, the GATT, which nevertheless achieved a great deal on behalf of freer world trade until it became, in 1995, the World Trade Organisation (WTO). A Europe divided in two Although the division of Europe into two halves assisted West European co-operation and involved the United States (and Canada) firmly in European affairs, it also delivered large parts of Central and Eastern Europe to Soviet hegemony, hindering economic development not only in the countries concerned but in Europe as a whole. In the

in Destination Europe
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excess, such as dairy products and beef, and hence to fewer export subsidies, considered to be in violation of World Trade Organisation rules. The new proposals would, however, keep intact many other features of the traditional CAP, such as price guarantees and levies on imported food. Meanwhile, farm aid to new member countries would be phased in as from enlargement, starting with a quarter of the EU level in 2004 and reaching it in 2013. The Commission’s proposal led to fierce reactions on the part of several EU governments with important CAP payments to defend

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)

regional organisations such as the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Free Trade Area (NAFTA) (which may or may not be polities themselves: the EU is a polity but NAFTA is not) or the multilateral institutions of global governance such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. In this context, recall our basic formal definition of democracy as a mode of government in

in Political concepts