Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
citizenry of photography. From June 1918 to April 1919, the American photographer Lewis Wickes Hine made photographs of refugees and other European civilians affected by WorldWarI while working overseas for the American Red Cross (ARC). Refugees emerged as a new humanitarian subject in direct result of the changing global order that came with WorldWarI. Hine’s photographs and the ARC’s use of them, both shaped and restricted public imagination with regard to refugees, and international spectators’ responses to them. Here, I explore Hine’s refugee photographs and more
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
throughout movies produced by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), private charities and state-funded agencies during humanitarian operations launched in Eastern Europe after WorldWarI. More specifically, it examines the performativity of moving images in making public claims, forging and channeling specific sensitivities among ephemeral audiences who gathered to watch these films. The ‘technologies of witnessing’ ( McLagan, 2006 : 191) offered by cinema not only allowed audiences to delve into the testimonial function of such images, but also to question
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the
United States, 1920s to 2010s
technology. Some of these displays were
sent to world expositions in Vienna (1873), Paris (1878), and Brussels (1897) ( Hutchinson, 1996 : 165f).
A full Red Cross museum was only realized by the end of WorldWarI – in the
United States. Many American Red Cross volunteers had collected significant symbolic
gifts during their work in Europe. At the same time, American Red Cross president
Henry Davison, teaming up with Broadway actress Eleanor Robson Belmont, looked for a
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
’ following the 9/11 attacks, violations of
international humanitarian law (IHL) have been described as ‘increasingly
serious’, culminating – at the time of writing – in systematic
attacks on hospitals and other civilian sites in Syria. Similar attacks in
Afghanistan, Yemen and South Sudan add to the picture of once respected IHL being
trampled. Some offer numbers as evidence, citing the fact that the overwhelming
percentage of victims in WorldWarI were soldiers, compared with
collision of these two wildly different points of view provoked
significant political and humanitarian consequences across Europe.
There is, of course, nothing new about disinformation, or its use in conflict and
crisis, or its implication of humanitarians. The aphorism, ‘In war, the first
casualty is truth’, goes back to WorldWarI, or perhaps Aeschylus.
Throughout their history, humanitarian actors have worked in many conflicts deeply
marked not only by the clash of metal and
to beg for Emperor Louis Napoleon’s help in saving his colonial investments.
We can look at the use by German forces in the 1870 Franco-Prussian war of the Red Cross as a
bombing target, or the contrast between The Hague Conventions and the use of poison gas during
WorldWarI, or prior to that the creation of a concentration camp system by the British in
South Africa. Indeed, we can go back to the famines the British at worst engineered, and at best
tolerated, in India, killing millions of people. Or the Germans and the Herero, or the Belgians
2 SE xiv, p. 284.
3 Sondra Stang (ed.), The Presence of Ford Madox Ford (Pennsylvania,
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981), p. xxvi.
4 Cate Haste dates the regular appearance of the ‘New Woman’ in fiction to
Ibsen’s The Doll’s House (1879) (Rules of Desire: Sex in Britain WorldWarI to the Present (London, Pimlico, 1992), p. 16); see also Joseph Bristow,
Sexuality (London, Routledge, 1997), p. 101.
5 Quoted by Mike Jay and Michael Neve (eds) in 1900 (Harmondsworth,
Penguin, 1999), p. 223.
6 Ford Madox Ford, The Good Soldier (New York, Norton, 1995), pp. 62
This chapter examines the response of the Labour Party to the outbreak of World War I. It suggests that this was the first major test of Labour's developing world-view and explains that the war widened the gap between the party and the Independent Labour Party (ILP). This chapter discusses how the decline in the ILP's importance within the Labour Party influenced the development of the Labour Party's views on the need for a League of Nations, open diplomacy and arms control, and a renewed optimism in internationalism. In addition to the war, the events in Russia also significantly influenced the party's foreign policy.
This chapter focuses on the Labour Party decision to join forces with Winston Churchill in a coalition government to support Great Britain's war effort. It suggests that World War I marked a decisive break with the past for the Labour Party, pointing to the way that Labour governments in the future would approach foreign and defence policy. During this period the party's vision of a post-war international order was based on the acceptance of the idea of subordinating national sovereignty to world institutions and obligations, and on the need for international economic planning.
Ford Madox Ford admired Ivan Turgenev, so it is not surprising that one comes across ideas borrowed, perhaps, from him in the later writer's work. In this case, though, there is a development at work; a development precipitated by World War I. Turgenev's self-confessed nihilist Bazarov expresses amazement at the tenacity of human belief in words – words that, in his example, can diminish and deaden a feeling of catastrophe. Were he to find himself instead in the volumes of Parade's End (or one of a number of other war novels), Bazarov's amazement would be tempered. Ford, post-war, has lost belief in words. He is often unsatisfied with the capacity of language to express the totality of thought or experience; speech constantly ‘gives out’, to be replaced by his most characteristic grammatical tool: ellipsis. Two quotations provide a framework for an exploration into how and why sight functions in the fragmentation of war. The first is from John Keegan's book, The Face of Battle; the second from Frederic Manning's novel, The Middle Parts of Fortune.