On the return of the Jewish question

Universalism has acted as a stimulus for Jewish emancipation, that is, for civil, political and social inclusion. It has also been a source of anti-Jewish prejudice up to and beyond the classic antisemitism of the modern period. While the experience of Jews is by no means unique in this respect, one of the peculiarities of the 'anti-Judaic' tradition has been to represent Jews in some important regard as the 'other' of the universal: as the personification either of a particularism opposed to the universal, or of a false universalism concealing Jewish self-interest. The former contrasts the particularism of the Jews to the universality of bourgeois civil society. The latter contrasts the bad universalism of the 'rootless cosmopolitan Jew' to the good universalism of whatever universal is advanced: nation, race or class. This book explores debates over Jewish emancipation within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, contrasting the work of two leading protagonists of Jewish emancipation: Christian von Dohm and Moses Mendelssohn. It discusses the emancipatory power of Karl Marx's critique of Bruno Bauer's opposition to Jewish emancipation and endorsement of The Jewish Question. Marxist debates over the growth of anti-Semitism; Hannah Arendt's critique of three types of Jewish responsiveness--assimilationism, Zionism and cosmopolitanism-- to anti-Semitism; and the endeavours of a leading postwar critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas are also discussed. Finally, the book focuses its critique on left antizionists who threaten to reinstate the Jewish question when they identify Israel and Zionism as the enemies of universalism.

Hannah Arendt’s Jewish writings
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

perturbed some critics is Arendt's claim that these sources could be ‘consulted with profit’ to find out anything worthwhile about the realities of Jewish life. 23 Some recent readers of Arendt have written approvingly of her co-responsibility thesis in the following sense, that they hold the behaviour of the Jewish state or the ideology of Jewish nationalism or the worldwide machinations of Zionism responsible or partly responsible for outbreaks of

in Antisemitism and the left
Open Access (free)
Universalism and the Jewish question
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

expect it, and third that it is open to contestation and rarely goes uncontested. In what may broadly be termed ‘the modern age’, the Jewish question has been as repeatedly challenged as it has been advanced: in eighteenth-century debates on Jewish emancipation, in nineteenth-century debates on the pathologies of capitalism and aims of socialism, in twentieth-century debates on antisemitism and the ‘final solution’, and in twenty-first-century debates on Zionism

in Antisemitism and the left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

Can Always Blame the Jews’). 2 The most significant expression of the reconfiguring of the Jewish question in the present period lies in the rise of negative representations of Israel and Zionism. While the stigmatisation of the idea of a Jewish nation may be traced back to the Enlightenment credo that everything should be granted to Jews ‘as individuals’ and nothing to Jews ‘as a nation’, it frames

in Antisemitism and the left
From universalisation to relativism
David Bruce MacDonald

-righteous nationalism, based on myths of Fall and Redemption. Sadly, the case of Yugoslavia provides an example of how Jewish victimisation and national renewal unwittingly bred a host of bastard children, seeking to manipulate and abuse the legacy of the Holocaust to advance a variety of geopolitical agendas. Biblical and Jewish ethics: nationalism and Zionism Frye’s analysis of biblical structure demarcated a clear ethical system, where good and evil were at odds with each other, driving history forward. The idea that there was an axiomatic link between Fall and Redemption provided

in Balkan holocausts?
Jürgen Habermas and the European left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

5 The Jewish question after the Holocaust: Jürgen Habermas and the European left I have, of course, long since abandoned my anti-Zionism, which was based on a confidence in the European labour movement, or, more broadly, in European society and civilisation, which that society and civilisation have not justified. If, instead of arguing against Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s I had urged European

in Antisemitism and the left
David Deutsch

imagery of Jewish resistance.41 The wide-​ranging legislation that ensured the perpetuation of the memory of Holocaust victims in the 1950s was constantly linked to the Jewish state. Linear linkage between the Holocaust and Zionism was rarely contravened in Israeli public dialogue up until the early 1970s. It is within this 100 100   Human remains in society context that several Zionist rabbis, including Efrati, published their legal responsas. In his ruling, Efrati makes an unusual pronouncement: ‘I hereby announce the establishment of a council that will devote its

in Human remains in society
Israeli security experience as an international brand
Erella Grassiani

Israeli characteristics that are used by these PSCs. Israeli masculinity is in many ways closely connected to military experience and thus militarised. Early Zionist framing of the perfect new Israeli citizen or the ‘New Jew’ depicted him as the opposite of the ghetto Jew, who was seen as weak and even feminine (Wistrich 1995 ). Theodor Herzl, modern Zionism’s founding father, was especially clear on

in Security/ Mobility
Open Access (free)
Confronting relativism in Serbia and Croatia
David Bruce MacDonald

Islamic expansionism in Bosnia-Hercegovina. These themes of sacrifice are important, because they draw their strength from the crucifixion, not the loss of Israel two thousand years ago, the Jewish pogroms, or the Holocaust. There 258 2441Concl 16/10/02 8:06 am Page 259 Conclusions: confronting relativism in Serbia and Croatia is no strong sense of sacrifice in Zionism, no sense of voluntarism, no decision on the part of Jews to martyr themselves for some larger ideal. Jews suffered because negative forces were persecuting them. Masada was the exception, rather

in Balkan holocausts?
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

tactical utility and it was closed down long before other anti-fascist committees. The first victim was its leading activist and spokesman, the playwright Solomon Mikhoels, who was murdered on Stalin's personal orders in January 1948. Other members, some of them die-hard Stalinists, were arrested, tortured, charged and in almost all cases shot. 39 The two decisive charges laid against leaders of the JAC, those of Zionism and cosmopolitanism, appear at first sight bizarrely

in Antisemitism and the left