The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the
humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of
negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups,
clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar
to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the
importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge
about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange
that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the
wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at
work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual
scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters
trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide
spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern
antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the
formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent
examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with
theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and
interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network
theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book
caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines;
primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology,
anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest
to the general reader.
In chapter 7, Leung presents the second analytical lens: actor–networktheory. She
opens the chapter describing Australia as a country in which the use of digital
technology is part of everyday life for most people. This situation can be construed as
a scenario in which both human and non-human actors establish a network, characterised
by symmetry between the social and the technical ( Latour, 1999 , 2005 ). Leung relies
on actor–networktheory to reject the binary conceptualisation of
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
), ‘The Return of the Broker: Consensus, Hierarchy, and Choice in South African Land Reform’ , Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute , 17 : 2 , 318 – 38 .
Kennedy , D. ( 2013 ), The Last Blank Spaces: Exploring Africa and Australia ( Cambridge : Harvard University Press ).
Latour , B. ( 2005 ), Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory ( Oxford : Oxford University Press ).
Lawrence , B. N. , Osborn , E. L. and Roberts , R. L. (eds) ( 2006 ), Intermediaries, Interpreters, and Clerks: African Employees in the
in world-experience. What is often called post-humanism ( Braidotti, 2013 ) brings several contemporary positivist stands together.
These include the new empiricism, speculative realism and actornetworktheory. Post-humanist
thought draws on process-oriented behavioural ontologies of becoming. These privilege
individuals understood as cognitively limited by their unmediated relationship with their
enfolding environments ( Galloway, 2013 ; Chandler, 2015 ). An individual’s
‘world’ reduces to the immediate who, where and when of their
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
J. ( 2000 ), Managing Displacement: Refugees
and the Politics of Humanitarianism ( Minneapolis,
MN : University of Minnesota
B. ( 2005 ), Reassembling the Social: An
Introduction to Actor–NetworkTheory
( Oxford : Oxford University
arrangement, therefore again encompassing the notion of technology
existing as a network.
In defining technologies as networks, further discussion
of the term ‘network’ is necessary. Latour ( 1999a ) argues that the term
‘Actor-NetworkTheory’ is a misnomer, since these three
words, and the hyphen, suggest an alternative meaning to what Latour and
other ANT theorists originally envisaged. In terms of the word
‘network’, Latour ( 1999a ) describes
how this word came into use in ANT studies prior to
will utilize Actor-Networktheory (hereafter, ANT). By taking a complex structure – in this case, a society – and understanding it as a ‘heterogeneous system’,
ANT posits the interrelations and interdependencies of what might otherwise be understood as independent entities; consequently, ‘there is no reason to assume, a
priori , that either objects or people in general determine the character of social change or stability’.
Featuring essays from some of the most prominent voices in early medieval English studies, Dating Beowulf: studies in intimacy playfully redeploys the word ‘dating’, which usually heralds some of the most divisive critical impasses in the field, to provocatively phrase a set of new relationships with an Old English poem. This volume presents an argument for the relevance of the early Middle Ages to affect studies and vice versa, while offering a riposte to anti-feminist discourse and opening avenues for future work by specialists in the history of emotions, feminist criticism, literary theory, Old English literature, and medieval studies alike. To this end, the chapters embody a range of critical approaches, from queer theory to animal studies and ecocriticism to Actor-Network theory, all organized into clusters that articulate new modes of intimacy with the poem.
In today’s world, we are offered a constantly expanding number of technologies to integrate into our lives. We now utilise a range of interconnected technologies at work, at home and at leisure. The realm of sport is no exception, where new technologies or enhancements are available to athletes, coaches, scientists, umpires, governing bodies and broadcasters. However, this book argues that in a world where time has become a precious commodity and numerous options are always on offer, functionality is no longer enough to drive their usage within elite sports training, competition and broadcasting. Consistent with an actor-network theory approach as developed by Bruno Latour, John Law, Michele Callon and Annemarie Mol, the book shows how those involved in sport must grapple with a unique set of understandings and connections in order to determine the best combination of technologies and other factors to serve their particular purpose. This book uses a case study approach to demonstrate how there are multiple explanations and factors at play in the use of technology that cannot be reduced to singular explanations like performance enhancement or commercialisation. Specific cases examined include doping, swimsuits, GPS units, Hawk-Eye and kayaks, along with broader areas such as the use of sports scientists in training and the integration of new enhancements in broadcasting. In all cases, the book demonstrates how multiple actors can affect the use or non-use of technology.
conversation analysis of map use in car journeys explores how map use is entangled
with other driving related practices, but brackets out other social relations.
Likewise, Perkins (2008) provides the most promising purchase through ethnographic research, drawing on actor-networktheory (ANT) to explore mapping constructions and circuits of capital bounded within the localised contexts
of specific case studies of specialised map use. Meanwhile, Hind and Gekker
(2014) focus on moments of (social) interaction between user and technology
interfaces (driver-car assemblages