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The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

who cannot use a mobile phone. Based on her observation that these interactions are often mediated by technology, Leung convincingly argues that technology-mediated interactions constitute proof of ‘the haphazard but functional dynamic of a network of weak ties’ (p. 54). Chapter 6 provides a compelling explanation of the complexities of how individuals from refugee backgrounds engage in digital-technology use. In chapter 7, Leung presents the second analytical lens: actor–network theory. She

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-34454384 (accessed 8 January 2020) . Hyndman , J. ( 2000 ), Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism ( Minneapolis, MN : University of Minnesota Press ). Latour , B. ( 2005 ), Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor–Network Theory ( Oxford : Oxford University

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

called post-humanism ( Braidotti, 2013 ) brings several contemporary positivist stands together. These include the new empiricism, speculative realism and actor network theory. Post-humanist thought draws on process-oriented behavioural ontologies of becoming. These privilege individuals understood as cognitively limited by their unmediated relationship with their enfolding environments ( Galloway, 2013 ; Chandler, 2015 ). An individual’s ‘world’ reduces to the immediate who, where and when of their changing network connections and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Roslyn Kerr

network arrangement, therefore again encompassing the notion of technology existing as a network. In defining technologies as networks, further discussion of the term ‘network’ is necessary. Latour ( 1999a ) argues that the term ‘Actor-Network Theory’ is a misnomer, since these three words, and the hyphen, suggest an alternative meaning to what Latour and other ANT theorists originally envisaged. In terms of the word ‘network’, Latour ( 1999a ) describes how this word came into use in ANT studies prior to

in Sport and technology
Open Access (free)
Agency in the Finnsburg episode
Mary Kate Hurley

will utilize Actor-Network theory (hereafter, ANT). By taking a complex structure – in this case, a society – and understanding it as a ‘heterogeneous system’, 7 ANT posits the interrelations and interdependencies of what might otherwise be understood as independent entities; consequently, ‘there is no reason to assume, a priori , that either objects or people in general determine the character of social change or stability’. 8 By

in Dating Beowulf
Open Access (free)
Studies in intimacy

Featuring essays from some of the most prominent voices in early medieval English studies, Dating Beowulf: studies in intimacy playfully redeploys the word ‘dating’, which usually heralds some of the most divisive critical impasses in the field, to provocatively phrase a set of new relationships with an Old English poem. This volume presents an argument for the relevance of the early Middle Ages to affect studies and vice versa, while offering a riposte to anti-feminist discourse and opening avenues for future work by specialists in the history of emotions, feminist criticism, literary theory, Old English literature, and medieval studies alike. To this end, the chapters embody a range of critical approaches, from queer theory to animal studies and ecocriticism to Actor-Network theory, all organized into clusters that articulate new modes of intimacy with the poem.

Open Access (free)
An actor-network theory perspective
Author: Roslyn Kerr

In today’s world, we are offered a constantly expanding number of technologies to integrate into our lives. We now utilise a range of interconnected technologies at work, at home and at leisure. The realm of sport is no exception, where new technologies or enhancements are available to athletes, coaches, scientists, umpires, governing bodies and broadcasters. However, this book argues that in a world where time has become a precious commodity and numerous options are always on offer, functionality is no longer enough to drive their usage within elite sports training, competition and broadcasting. Consistent with an actor-network theory approach as developed by Bruno Latour, John Law, Michele Callon and Annemarie Mol, the book shows how those involved in sport must grapple with a unique set of understandings and connections in order to determine the best combination of technologies and other factors to serve their particular purpose. This book uses a case study approach to demonstrate how there are multiple explanations and factors at play in the use of technology that cannot be reduced to singular explanations like performance enhancement or commercialisation. Specific cases examined include doping, swimsuits, GPS units, Hawk-Eye and kayaks, along with broader areas such as the use of sports scientists in training and the integration of new enhancements in broadcasting. In all cases, the book demonstrates how multiple actors can affect the use or non-use of technology.

The case for practice theory
Matthew Hanchard

conversation analysis of map use in car journeys explores how map use is entangled with other driving related practices, but brackets out other social relations. Likewise, Perkins (2008) provides the most promising purchase through ethnographic research, drawing on actor-network theory (ANT) to explore mapping constructions and circuits of capital bounded within the localised contexts of specific case studies of specialised map use. Meanwhile, Hind and Gekker (2014) focus on moments of (social) interaction between user and technology interfaces (driver-car assemblages

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Clusters of knowledge
Julia Roberts and Kathleen Sheppard

its theoretical foundation the history and philosophy of science, in which there is a rich tradition of investigating the role of communication among practitioners using Ludwik Fleck’s theory of ‘thought collectives’, Bruno Latour’s actornetwork theory, and the geography of knowledge (Fleck, 1979 [1935]; Livingstone, 2003; Latour, 2005; Shapin, 2010). Fleck (1979 [1935]) argued that the production of scientific knowledge is largely a social process which depends upon not only the actors themselves, but the cultural and historical contexts of their work. Related

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology