Open Access (free)
Black Women as Surrogates of Liberation in James Baldwin’s If Beale Street Could Talk
Marquita R. Smith

This essay analyzes how James Baldwin’s late novel If Beale Street Could Talk represents Black women’s care work in the face of social death as an example of how Black women act as surrogates for Black liberation giving birth to a new world and possibilities of freedom for Black (male) people. Within the politics of Black nationalism, Black women were affective workers playing a vital role in the (re)creation of heteronormative family structures that formed the basis of Black liberation cohered by a belief in the power of patriarchy to make way for communal freedom. This essay demonstrates how Beale Street’s imagining of freedom centers not on what Black women do to support themselves or each other, but on the needs of the community at large, with embodied sacrifice as a presumed condition of such liberation.

James Baldwin Review
A Session at the 2019 Modern Language Association Convention
Robert Jackson, Sharon P. Holland, and Shawn Salvant

“Interventions” was the organizing term for the presentations of three Baldwin scholars at the Modern Language Association Convention in Chicago in January of 2019. Baldwin’s travels and activities in spaces not traditionally associated with him, including the U.S. South and West, represent interventions of a quite literal type, while his aesthetic and critical encounters with these and other cultures, including twenty-first-century contexts of racial, and racist, affect—as in the case of Raoul Peck’s 2016 film I Am Not Your Negro—provide opportunities to reconsider his work as it contributes to new thinking about race, space, property, citizenship, and aesthetics.

James Baldwin Review
Sophie Roborgh

( UN, 2016 ). The violence that Syria’s health sector has experienced, especially in non-government-held areas, has had profound consequences. Hundreds of healthcare workers and patients have lost their lives, while the indirect effects in terms of trauma and loss of services continue to affect the population long after the attack has occurred ( Fouad et al. , 2017 ). Important insights have been gained in the prevalence of attacks on healthcare ( PHR, 2019a ; 2019b ), the measuring of such attacks ( Elamein et al. , 2017 ; Briody et al. , 2018 ; Haar et al

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

peers is critical. The first two articles of this issue remind us of the importance of considering side by side the safety of humanitarian personnel and the protection of civilians – a necessary reminder given that in relief agencies the vocabulary of security has far outweighed that of the protection of civilians. Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper describe and analyse violence that affects caregiving and show that violence against humanitarian workers is linked to war violence in general. They

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

humanitarian agencies, the political currency of liberal humanitarianism and its institutions has steadily waned. In recent years, liberal order has been flagrantly challenged by a visceral and affective politics, produced by globalisation itself. Global income inequality increased significantly with the acceleration of globalisation following the end of the Cold War: from a Gini coefficient of 0.57 to one of 0.72, between 1988 and 2005 ( Anand and Segal, 2014: 968 ). Then, following the 2008 financial crash, capital doubled down. While those most

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

seems to have barely begun to do so regarding the implications of being embedded with humanitarian organisations. 18 This type of embedded journalism, and reporters’ practical dependence on humanitarian organisations are not, however, without consequences. One of the most important is how it affects the ‘angles’ that journalists choose. I noticed while examining how the French press described the Mai-Mai, that it very rarely talked about the Mai-Mai with a view to tracing

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

findings are based on field research conducted in May 2017 and July 2018. A double penalty. Many households whose houses were destroyed or damaged by the earthquake in April 2015 were not eligible because they lack land title. These include families living on religious guthi land, families that have been living for years on government land or marginal land, grown-up offspring that have built houses on their parents’ property but do not have separate title. Most of these are very vulnerable poor families. The inability to avail themselves of the grant affects them

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

reduce vulnerability to a threat, but does not affect the threat itself’ ( Egeland et al. , 2011 : 28). To illustrate this conceptual distinction more concretely, a mitigation approach seeks to shield humanitarian actors from harm due to any armed attacks that may occur. A confrontational approach aims to dissuade the armed actor from launching an attack on humanitarians in the first place. Of these three approaches, there is a widespread sense of the desirability of ‘acceptance’-based measures. Various interviewees spoke about employing ‘acceptance as our main

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

described affect both operational effectiveness and accountability, from the inclusiveness of needs assessments and feedback mechanisms to the provision of services and the implementation of behavior change campaigns. Confidentiality and conflict-sensitivity are impaired when not everyone can speak for themselves. Organizations were also concerned that the language barriers are impeding their capacity to communicate effectively

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

– and contributing to ‘processes of biomedicalisation’ ( Carter et al. , 2018: 2 ). While we need to recognise the structural differences in context, I suggest these insights are crucial for understanding the making of humanitarian wearables. Carving Out the Digital Body In the wearable-technology literature, key critical questions include how such technology can augment the human body, how it affects the relationship to oneself

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs