Open Access (free)
Black Women as Surrogates of Liberation in James Baldwin’s If Beale Street Could Talk
Marquita R. Smith

This essay analyzes how James Baldwin’s late novel If Beale Street Could Talk represents Black women’s care work in the face of social death as an example of how Black women act as surrogates for Black liberation giving birth to a new world and possibilities of freedom for Black (male) people. Within the politics of Black nationalism, Black women were affective workers playing a vital role in the (re)creation of heteronormative family structures that formed the basis of Black liberation cohered by a belief in the power of patriarchy to make way for communal freedom. This essay demonstrates how Beale Street’s imagining of freedom centers not on what Black women do to support themselves or each other, but on the needs of the community at large, with embodied sacrifice as a presumed condition of such liberation.

James Baldwin Review
A Session at the 2019 Modern Language Association Convention
Robert Jackson, Sharon P. Holland, and Shawn Salvant

“Interventions” was the organizing term for the presentations of three Baldwin scholars at the Modern Language Association Convention in Chicago in January of 2019. Baldwin’s travels and activities in spaces not traditionally associated with him, including the U.S. South and West, represent interventions of a quite literal type, while his aesthetic and critical encounters with these and other cultures, including twenty-first-century contexts of racial, and racist, affect—as in the case of Raoul Peck’s 2016 film I Am Not Your Negro—provide opportunities to reconsider his work as it contributes to new thinking about race, space, property, citizenship, and aesthetics.

James Baldwin Review
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

of the twentieth century, all participated in forming injunctions to care about and react to the injustice exposed. Drawing from recent scholarship building on emotions and humanitarianism, this paper thus considers early humanitarian films as a form of ‘mediated humanitarian affect’; by the 1920s, this media technology offered a new ‘scale of mediated communication, sensorial range of human experience, and capaciousness of moral attention’ ( Ross, 2020 : 169). The movies not only proposed ‘inducements to affective expression’ (175) but were the key component of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

health and provide a comprehensive strategy to promote mental health’ ( DfID, 2020 : 12). DfID could also have provided useful clear and concrete examples of well-being promotion. The ToC’s fifth and final critical change pathway is the prioritisation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCAS), where mental conditions affect an estimated 22 per cent of the population at any one time ( Charlson et al. , 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sophie Roborgh

al. , 2017 ), even showing an increase after the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2286 condemning those attacks ( UN, 2016 ). The violence that Syria’s health sector has experienced, especially in non-government-held areas, has had profound consequences. Hundreds of healthcare workers and patients have lost their lives, while the indirect effects in terms of trauma and loss of services continue to affect the population long after the attack has occurred ( Fouad

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Catherine Akurut

Introduction Men experience sexual violence during armed conflict situations, which affects their physical, social and psychological well-being. However, this is under-researched and under-reported ( Vojdik: 2014 : 931), and often misunderstood and mischaracterised ( Kapur and Muddell, 2016 : 4). Consequently, men who experience conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) have been severely overlooked within the humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

peers is critical. The first two articles of this issue remind us of the importance of considering side by side the safety of humanitarian personnel and the protection of civilians – a necessary reminder given that in relief agencies the vocabulary of security has far outweighed that of the protection of civilians. Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper describe and analyse violence that affects caregiving and show that violence against humanitarian workers is linked to war violence in general. They

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

humanitarian agencies, the political currency of liberal humanitarianism and its institutions has steadily waned. In recent years, liberal order has been flagrantly challenged by a visceral and affective politics, produced by globalisation itself. Global income inequality increased significantly with the acceleration of globalisation following the end of the Cold War: from a Gini coefficient of 0.57 to one of 0.72, between 1988 and 2005 ( Anand and Segal, 2014: 968 ). Then, following the 2008 financial crash, capital doubled down. While those most

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Róisín Read

’ ( Turner, 2019 ); militarised and romanticised representations of aid workers ( Taithe, 2020 ); embodied and affective experiences of both aid workers and aid recipients ( Read, 2018 ; Thorpe & Chawansky, 2020 ); and how the sector may be implicated in the maintenance of gendered power structures ( Martínez and Libal, 2011 ; Repo & Yrjölä, 2011 ), to cite but a few examples. But there is much work still to do, especially to ensure a more global conversation around gender

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

patriotic duty ( Irwin, 2013 : 67, 79). As an organization promoting international humanitarian patriotism, it was the ARC’s role to raise awareness of suffering that needed alleviating and to build sympathy for victims. The Magazine hired Lewis Hine and other social progressive artists and authors for their skills at building affect and raising consciences ( Irwin, 2013 : 84–5). 3 Hine had established the reputation as America’s foremost social photographer 4 with much of his own ‘lens’ having taken shape through his studies in education and sociology. This, at a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs