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2543Chap2 16/7/03 9:57 am Page 12 2 Analytical framework This chapter outlines the analytical framework of our empirical analysis. Our point of departure is to identify the sources of corporate strategy choice: what factors determine the strategies chosen by the oil industry to meet climate-change challenges? We explore the impact of three main groups of factors, related to: (1) company-specific features; (2) the political context of corporate activity at the domestic level; (3) the international institutional context in which multinational companies

in Climate change and the oil industry
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Relations between the European Union and Mercosur

2 Analytical framework: relations between the European Union and Mercosur Introduction This chapter establishes the analytical framework that will be used to examine EU–Mercosur relations. It begins by offering a critical review of the existing literature. Until now, the literature on EU–Mercosur has been very descriptive but not very analytical. It has tended to cover specific moments of the relations and as a consequence it has forgotten to look at the bigger picture. Most authors have chosen to explain EU–Mercosur relations by using more than one argument at

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
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Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

trying to anticipate – violent incidents in health facilities. Kalyvas’s analytical framework also rests on a distinction between indiscriminate violence, a costly strategy pursued because of lack of control and local information, which risks alienating the civilian population further, and selective violence, made possible when political and military actors can obtain information from ‘individual civilians trying to avoid the worst – but also grabbing what opportunities their predicament affords them’ ( ibid .: 388–9). This framework seems particularly relevant for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book reviews a variety of approaches to the study of the European Union's foreign policy. Much analysis of EU foreign policy contains theoretical assumptions about the nature of the EU and its member states, their inter-relationships, the international system in which they operate and the nature of European integration. The book outlines the possibilities for the use of discourse analysis in the study of European foreign policy. It sets out to explore the research problem using a political-cultural approach and seeks to illuminate the cognitive mind-maps with which policy-makers interpret their political 'realities'. The book provides an overview and analysis of some of the non-realist approaches to international relations and foreign policy, and proposes an analytical framework with which to explore the complex interplay of factors affecting European foreign policy. The book suggests one way of seeking theoretical parsimony without sacrificing the most defining empirical knowledge which has been generated about Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) over the years. It argues that while the sui generis nature of CFSP presents an acute problem for international relations theory, it is less pronounced with regard to traditional integration theory. The book discusses the dimensions of European foreign policy-making with reference to the case of arms export controls. Situated at the interface between European studies and international relations, it outlines how the EU relates to the rest of the world, explaining its effort towards creating a credible, effective and principled foreign, security and defence policy.

This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

of Yugoslav succession amply demonstrates. Nonetheless, as other contributors to this volume have argued, there are a number of non-realist approaches to international relations and foreign policy analysis that provide useful insights relevant to the study of the EU as an international actor. This chapter provides an overview and analysis of some of these approaches, and proposes an analytical framework with which to explore

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
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strategies. The point of departure for the analysis in this book is the sharp contrast between the important role played by the oil industry and the lack of analytical frameworks within social science climate research for studying corporate actors. Systematic case studies of major companies in other issue areas are also short in supply, even though a wide range of global environmental problems has been linked to the worldwide operations of multinational corporations. In this chapter, we will first recapitulate the analytical framework developed and applied in this analysis

in Climate change and the oil industry
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’s power. The analytical framework upon which the book is constructed draws on recent theoretical developments in the history of women and power and utilises traditional scholarly approaches to the study of the twelfth century. In so doing it re-defines the nature of twelfth-century lordship. The debate on the roles of medieval women has moved a long way from seeing them as victims of male dominance, and the ideology of separate spheres has been superseded by recent theoretical insights which consider the importance of gender and the impact of the female life cycle on

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm

concept of ‘instituted economic process’ with the other and more widely adopted Polanyan legacy of ‘embeddedness’, the chapter explores competition as an instituted economic process in five dimensions: the co-institution of competitive processes and markets; relations of power and mutual dependence between classes of economic agent; the formation of units of competition; the formation of scales of competition; and the development of formal and informal norms of competition. The chapter then provides an exemplification of this analytical framework through a schematic

in Market relations and the competitive process
Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.