This book explores how conceptions of episcopacy (government of a church by bishops) shaped the identity of the bishops of France in the wake of the reforming Council of Trent (1545–63). It demonstrates how the episcopate, initially demoralised by the Wars of Religion, developed a powerful ideology of privilege, leadership and pastorate that enabled it to become a flourishing participant in the religious, political and social life of the ancien regime. The book analyses the attitudes of Tridentine bishops towards their office by considering the French episcopate as a recognisable caste, possessing a variety of theological and political principles that allowed it to dominate the French church.
the justice and the attendant question of judicial integrity. Like many office-holders in the AncienRegime,
the judges of England’s ecclesiastical courts depended upon court fees for their
basic incomes. And the records of individual trials that were fully recorded,
customarily included the payment of court fees, of which judges took a share.30
Litigants paid for libels, for commissions to examine witnesses, for sentences,
for documents of appeal; indeed they paid for all the paper produced during
trials. Part of the money paid for these items went to the judges
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
and practice of episcopacy. It had a profound impact on the episcopate and its relationship with the Tridentine papacy
and the French crown, and ultimately shaped the French church for the
remainder of the ancienrégime. At its heart stood its keenest participants, the
body of prelates that formed the French episcopate.
Historians have long understood that to grasp the nature of early modern
catholicism, one must attend to its bishops. In the traditional ‘confessional’
accounts of the Counter-Reformation, they assumed pivotal positions in the
eighteenth-century international ‘deist movement’, which has been considered ‘especially strong in Britain and
France’.3 It has consequently been noted that amongst some historians there has been an ‘obsessive iteration of “modernity” as a
watchword of Enlightenment’.4
In his Christianity under the AncienRégime 1648–1789
(1999), Ward has suggested that the number of deist writers was
‘immense’.5 Herrick (The Radical Rhetoric of the English Deists,
1997) has claimed that English deists were so numerous that they
posed a threat to the social and religious order.6 In his
, Christianity under the AncienRégime 1648–1789 (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 159, on Bayle’s active membership of the
reformed church while writing the Dictionnaire.
K. Sandberg, At the Crossroads of Faith and Reason. An Essay on Pierre Bayle
(Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1966), p. 2.
Ibid., pp. 38–9.
W. Rex, Essays on Pierre Bayle and Religious Controversy (The Hague:
Martinus Nijhoff, 1965), p. x.
Sandberg, At the Crossroads of Faith and Reason, pp. 99, 103.
E. Labrousse, Pierre Bayle (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press,
1983; 1st edn
order and a key site of resistance.
‘Post-Marxist’ or revisionist historians of the ‘classic’ revolutions,
especially of the French and Russian Revolutions, have since the
1970s tended to emphasise the limitations of radical movements to
effect a root-and-branch change in the deeper social structures of the
ancienrégime, structures which tended to survive underground only to
resurface later. From the 1920s onwards several states engaged in the
authoritarian, ‘top-down’, modernisation of Muslim societies, and in
particular of the role of women and marriage law. The
majorité de Charles IX et trois
autres discours, ed. Robert Descimon (Paris, 1993), pp. 107–108; Michel de Marillac,
Louis XIV and the parlements
‘Mémoire . . . contre l’authorité du Parlement’, BN, Fonds fr., 7,549, ﬀ. 90v–91r; Le
Bret, Souveraineté, Bk II, ch. ix; Georges Picot, Histoire des États Généraux (4 vols;
Paris, 1872), II, 561–562.
François Olivier-Martin, L’organisation corporative de la France d’ancienrégime (Paris,
1938), p.439; Georges d’Avenel, vicomte, Richelieu et la monarchie absolue, 2nd ed.
(4 vols; Paris
of the compound structure of political and religious culture after the
Historians have debated for many years whether 1689 was a watershed in
the creation of the modern world, or merely another ‘restoration’ of ancienregime constitutions in Church and State. Whether insisting that British culture
stood on the brink of modernity, or that the nation was not so much
transformed as secured, it is clear that one of the major issues of public and
private life was the status and role of religion in political culture.9 Far from
ending debates about
These ‘rational’ forms of
thought contributed to the criticism of the ancienrégime
in France, the French Revolution, and the development of what we now call
‘political ideologies’ that dominated political debate in Europe
and the world during the following two centuries. Far from introducing new
forms of rationality into politics, ideological forms of thinking tended to
create new forms of