Visions of episcopacy in seventeenth-century France

This book explores how conceptions of episcopacy (government of a church by bishops) shaped the identity of the bishops of France in the wake of the reforming Council of Trent (1545–63). It demonstrates how the episcopate, initially demoralised by the Wars of Religion, developed a powerful ideology of privilege, leadership and pastorate that enabled it to become a flourishing participant in the religious, political and social life of the ancien regime. The book analyses the attitudes of Tridentine bishops towards their office by considering the French episcopate as a recognisable caste, possessing a variety of theological and political principles that allowed it to dominate the French church.

R. H. Helmholz

the justice and the attendant question of judicial integrity. Like many office-holders in the Ancien Regime, the judges of England’s ecclesiastical courts depended upon court fees for their basic incomes. And the records of individual trials that were fully recorded, customarily included the payment of court fees, of which judges took a share.30 Litigants paid for libels, for commissions to examine witnesses, for sentences, for documents of appeal; indeed they paid for all the paper produced during trials. Part of the money paid for these items went to the judges

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

and practice of episcopacy. It had a profound impact on the episcopate and its relationship with the Tridentine papacy and the French crown, and ultimately shaped the French church for the remainder of the ancien régime. At its heart stood its keenest participants, the body of prelates that formed the French episcopate. Historians have long understood that to grasp the nature of early modern catholicism, one must attend to its bishops. In the traditional ‘confessional’ accounts of the Counter-Reformation, they assumed pivotal positions in the Introduction 2 22

in Fathers, pastors and kings
S.J. Barnett

eighteenth-century international ‘deist movement’, which has been considered ‘especially strong in Britain and France’.3 It has consequently been noted that amongst some historians there has been an ‘obsessive iteration of “modernity” as a watchword of Enlightenment’.4 In his Christianity under the Ancien Régime 1648–1789 (1999), Ward has suggested that the number of deist writers was ‘immense’.5 Herrick (The Radical Rhetoric of the English Deists, 1997) has claimed that English deists were so numerous that they posed a threat to the social and religious order.6 In his

in The Enlightenment and religion
S.J. Barnett

, Christianity under the Ancien Régime 1648–1789 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 159, on Bayle’s active membership of the reformed church while writing the Dictionnaire. K. Sandberg, At the Crossroads of Faith and Reason. An Essay on Pierre Bayle (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1966), p. 2. Ibid., pp. 38–9. W. Rex, Essays on Pierre Bayle and Religious Controversy (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965), p. x. Sandberg, At the Crossroads of Faith and Reason, pp. 99, 103. E. Labrousse, Pierre Bayle (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1983; 1st edn

in The Enlightenment and religion
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The failure of history
Neil Macmaster

order and a key site of resistance. ‘Post-Marxist’ or revisionist historians of the ‘classic’ revolutions, especially of the French and Russian Revolutions, have since the 1970s tended to emphasise the limitations of radical movements to effect a root-and-branch change in the deeper social structures of the ancien régime, structures which tended to survive underground only to resurface later. From the 1920s onwards several states engaged in the authoritarian, ‘top-down’, modernisation of Muslim societies, and in particular of the role of women and marriage law. The

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Sovereignty and registration of the laws
John J. Hurt

majorité de Charles IX et trois autres discours, ed. Robert Descimon (Paris, 1993), pp. 107–108; Michel de Marillac, 13 Louis XIV and the parlements 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ‘Mémoire . . . contre l’authorité du Parlement’, BN, Fonds fr., 7,549, ff. 90v–91r; Le Bret, Souveraineté, Bk II, ch. ix; Georges Picot, Histoire des États Généraux (4 vols; Paris, 1872), II, 561–562. François Olivier-Martin, L’organisation corporative de la France d’ancien régime (Paris, 1938), p.439; Georges d’Avenel, vicomte, Richelieu et la monarchie absolue, 2nd ed. (4 vols; Paris

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Justin Champion

of the compound structure of political and religious culture after the Glorious Revolution. Historians have debated for many years whether 1689 was a watershed in the creation of the modern world, or merely another ‘restoration’ of ancien regime constitutions in Church and State. Whether insisting that British culture stood on the brink of modernity, or that the nation was not so much transformed as secured, it is clear that one of the major issues of public and private life was the status and role of religion in political culture.9 Far from ending debates about

in Republican learning
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

dramatically. These ‘rational’ forms of thought contributed to the criticism of the ancien régime in France, the French Revolution, and the development of what we now call ‘political ideologies’ that dominated political debate in Europe and the world during the following two centuries. Far from introducing new forms of rationality into politics, ideological forms of thinking tended to create new forms of

in Understanding political ideas and movements