On the return of the Jewish question

Universalism has acted as a stimulus for Jewish emancipation, that is, for civil, political and social inclusion. It has also been a source of anti-Jewish prejudice up to and beyond the classic antisemitism of the modern period. While the experience of Jews is by no means unique in this respect, one of the peculiarities of the 'anti-Judaic' tradition has been to represent Jews in some important regard as the 'other' of the universal: as the personification either of a particularism opposed to the universal, or of a false universalism concealing Jewish self-interest. The former contrasts the particularism of the Jews to the universality of bourgeois civil society. The latter contrasts the bad universalism of the 'rootless cosmopolitan Jew' to the good universalism of whatever universal is advanced: nation, race or class. This book explores debates over Jewish emancipation within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, contrasting the work of two leading protagonists of Jewish emancipation: Christian von Dohm and Moses Mendelssohn. It discusses the emancipatory power of Karl Marx's critique of Bruno Bauer's opposition to Jewish emancipation and endorsement of The Jewish Question. Marxist debates over the growth of anti-Semitism; Hannah Arendt's critique of three types of Jewish responsiveness--assimilationism, Zionism and cosmopolitanism-- to anti-Semitism; and the endeavours of a leading postwar critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas are also discussed. Finally, the book focuses its critique on left antizionists who threaten to reinstate the Jewish question when they identify Israel and Zionism as the enemies of universalism.

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The Second World War and the Balkan Historikerstreit

. At the same time, since Croats were mainly CCP supporters, their culpability was significantly reduced. Anti-Semitism in Croatia: Stepinac and the people How Jews were treated in Yugoslavia during the Second World War became another subject of heated debate. If each side was legitimately to claim to be the victims of genocide, of the type experienced by the Jews, then their own relationship with the Jews was crucial. For both Serbs and Croats, Jewish history during the war needed to be carefully revised, to highlight only the 143 2441Chapter5 16/10/02 8:05 am

in Balkan holocausts?
From universalisation to relativism

continued presence of an ahistorical negative 40 2441Chapter2 16/10/02 8:03 am Page 41 Instrumentalising the Holocaust: universalisation to relativism agency, able to bind the Jews together, able to again place them within their historical teleology. For many nineteenth-century Zionists, the dangers posed by antiSemitism would prove of crucial importance in rallying co-nationals together to dream of a renewed Israel. While the reality of anti-Semitism arguably stemmed from Roman times, the term was first coined by Wilhelm Marr in 1879, and adopted into his

in Balkan holocausts?

legitimating the dismantling of the Yugoslav Federation, and the expansionist ambitions of Milošević and his colleagues. Kosovo, and more general myths of Golden Age and Fall, were instrumentalised first in the case of the Kosovar Albanians, and secondly, and more importantly, in the case of the Croats. As the conflict progressed, writers came to identify a Serbian version of anti-Semitism – ‘Serbophobia’ – a genocidal and expansionist strategy, supposedly used throughout history by Serbia’s T HIS CHAPTER CHARTS 63 2441Chapter3 16/10/02 8:04 am Page 64 Balkan

in Balkan holocausts?

’s national propaganda evolved within an authoritarian context, and many of the central themes favoured by Croatian writers were similar to those advanced by their Serbian counterparts. The spectre of ‘Greater Serbia’ – which became likened to an anti-Semitism for Croats – was remarkably similar to Serbophobia. Many other myths appeared to be a reaction to a fear and strong distrust of the Serbs. Several, like the ‘state right’ tradition, the Antemurale Christianitatis, and Medjugorje, proved the existence of a civilised, peace-loving and enlightened Croatia. Other myths

in Balkan holocausts?

6 The return of the Jewish question and the double life of Israel So now the Jew is mistrusted not for what he is, but for the anti-Semitism of which he is the cause. And no Jew is more the cause of anti-Semitism than the Jew who speaks of anti-Semitism. (Howard Jacobson, When Will the Jews be Forgiven for the Holocaust? ) 1 Those who have always felt that Jews were

in Antisemitism and the left
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Enthusiasm and audit

scene, deeply despondent at the reception and commercial failure of Moby-Dick. Pound’s cultural enthusiasm distorted into zealous anti-Semitism. Frank O’Hara died at the age of forty, in a state, so some have argued, of literary exhaustion. James Schuyler was periodically hospitalized throughout his life. Emerson had anticipated this. ‘What is a man good for,’ he asked ‘without enthusiasm? and what is enthusiasm without this daring of ruin for its object?’ What he understood was that, difficult as it can be to sustain, and whether at the time people like it or not

in Enthusiast!
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indelicate word is spoken about Barbie, infamous in the rest of the world as ‘the butcher of Lyon’. Another example is a review of a book that deals with the German annexation of Sudetenland (the western part of the Czech Republic) in 1938, in which the author speaks on the one hand of the ‘overheated nationalism’ of the Czechs and on the other hand of the ‘liberation of the Sudetenländer’ (DNZ 24/6/87). Anti-semitism A topic that is present in almost every issue of the newspapers is that of the Jews in general and of Israel in particular. Even though anti-Semitism is

in The ideology of the extreme right
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official party paper. Even in this case, however, both the externally and the internally oriented literature do reflect the core ideology of the party. Moreover, when we apply the same distinction to the VB, we can see a remarkable similarity in ideological content, with even the more sensitive features such as ethnopluralism and revisionism featuring in both sources. Indeed, the only small proof of the thesis that certain particularly sensitive features are hidden from the front-stage is found in the fact that anti-Semitism is exclusively expressed back-stage, i

in The ideology of the extreme right
Jürgen Habermas and the European left

The philosopher Judith Butler pursued the same line of argument when she expressed the view that ‘the charge of anti-Semitism’ was exercising a ‘chilling effect on political discourse’ and maintained that ‘certain actions of the Israeli state – acts of violence and murder against children and civilians – must not be objected to … for fear that any protest against them would be tantamount to anti-Semitism’. She held that the ‘charge of

in Antisemitism and the left