A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

Shattered State ( London : Zed Books ). Hilton , M. ( 2018 ), ‘ Oxfam and the Problem of NGO Aid Appraisal in the 1960s ’, Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development , 9 : 1 , 1 – 18 , doi: 10.1353/hum.2018.0000 . Korff , V. P

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bert Ingelaere

of actions by incorporating the meaning attached to these facts by victim and perpetrator through interaction, discussion and debate, and not as arguments. Factual knowledge is accompanied by the acknowledgement of events and acceptance of accountability in the context of restoring the dignity of victims and survivors. Given the importance of the discursive in the gacaca practice as well as in the popular appraisal of the courts impact on the social tissue and given the fact that there are different dimensions to the truth as suggested in the report of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

downturn, rather than problematise informality, developmentalists now praise it as an authentic and valued expression of community mutuality and gender inclusion ( Becker, 2004 ). Through such progressive reinscription, the informal sector has been repackaged through projects like ‘Bottom of the Pyramid’ economics ( Prahalad, 2006 ) or ‘inclusive capitalism’ as an eligible and eager development and business partner. Consider, for example, UNDP’s (2008) homely appraisal of NGO-assisted informality as a low-cost welfare infrastructure for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

inspire confidence in the valuation of their real estate assets, especially in 2007 and 2008, when prices in the real estate market were falling. Recognized procedures have been developed by standard-setting bodies for valuation in the USA and in the UK. International standards are in the process of being established by the International Valuation Standards Council, a long-time partner of the Appraisal Foundation. This chapter draws on the procedures as set out by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors in London, and the Appraisal Foundation

in Lehman Brothers
Oonagh McDonald

These are the key points arising from the Examiner's analysis of Lehman's approach to valuation. The purpose of this chapter is to detail the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. Interagency Appraisal and Valuation Guidelines These are the guidelines which applied before 2008. They include Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act 1989, which required the agencies to provide

in Lehman Brothers
Susan M. Johns

analysis will be put into the context of an appraisal of the importance of gender, lordship and the way that family connections were indicated through countergifts. This will be achieved through a consideration of the importance of the type(s) of countergift that women received, and, where appropriate, this will be put into a comparative framework with those received by men. Thus it is argued that an analysis of countergifts should properly be studied in sociocultural contexts but with an awareness of the impact of gender and the demands of tenurial lordship. Lordship is

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
T.S. Eliot and Gothic hauntings in Waugh’s A Handful of Dust and Barnes’s Nightwood
Avril Horner and Sue Zlosnik

reference point for this re-assessment, we also draw attention to the way in which both Barnes and Waugh use his work as a touchstone to negotiate the Gothic within their novels. We suggest that Eliot’s relationships with these two texts, when taken together, offer an interesting perspective on the relationship borne by Modernism in its late phase to literary traditions, both English and American. Furthermore, Eliot’s critical appraisal of Barnes’s work is shown to be informed by a perspective which reveals an American anxiety concerning tradition and the individual talent

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Sarah Alyn Stacey

identity and that successful communication of that identity consists in a straightforward linear transaction between the emitter’s intended signal and the reproductive consciousness  Writing the dynamics of identity of the receiver/interpreter. What Cyrille fails to entertain is that, just as Jacob may have misinterpreted her sexual identity, it is equally possible that she may have misinterpreted his appraisal of her (and, of course, other expressions of his identity), and indeed her own true identity. The episode also illustrates one of the mechanisms whereby the

in Women’s writing in contemporary France