Ch a pter 3
Appraisals of Britain’s Military Strength and War
[Britain] is convinced that the life of the British citizen is too precious
to be risked in the petty fights among continental countries.1
or Mussolini, war was the greatest test of nations and ideologies,
and it was the pursuit of war and imperial expansion that led Fascist Italy
down the path of hostility with Britain.2 However, war itself proved the
doom of the Fascist experiment, mainly at the hands of the British Empire. The
Italian Fascist representation of Great Britain from a
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair
Shattered State ( London :
Zed Books ).
( 2018 ), ‘ Oxfam and the Problem of NGO Aid
Appraisal in the 1960s ’, Humanity: An
International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and
Development , 9 : 1 ,
1 – 18 , doi: 10.1353/hum.2018.0000 .
Korff , V.
Writing about Personal Experiences of Humanitarianism
Róisín Read, Tony Redmond, and Gareth Owen
exclude previous criminal convictions. They are also subject to annual appraisal and regular revalidation to ensure their skills and behaviour are satisfactory.
( 2019 ), ‘The Naive Republic of Aid: Grassroots Exceptionalism in Humanitarian Memoir’ , in
(eds), Global Humanitarianism and Media Culture ( Manchester : Manchester University Press ), pp.
83 – 102 , www.manchesteropenhive.com/view/9781526117304/9781526117304.00012.xml (accessed 6 July 2021 ).
downturn, rather than problematise informality,
developmentalists now praise it as an authentic and valued expression of community mutuality and
gender inclusion ( Becker, 2004 ). Through such
progressive reinscription, the informal sector has been repackaged through projects like
‘Bottom of the Pyramid’ economics ( Prahalad,
2006 ) or ‘inclusive capitalism’ as an eligible and eager development and
business partner. Consider, for example, UNDP’s
(2008) homely appraisal of NGO-assisted informality as a low-cost welfare infrastructure
of actions by incorporating the meaning attached to these facts by victim and perpetrator through interaction, discussion and debate, and not as arguments. Factual knowledge is accompanied by the acknowledgement of events and acceptance of accountability in the context of restoring the dignity of victims and survivors.
Given the importance of the discursive in the gacaca practice as well as in the popular appraisal of the courts impact on the social tissue and given the fact that there are different dimensions to the truth as suggested in the report of the
This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including
the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the
repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the
collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book
argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective
regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply
not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three
brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to
local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior
management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of
the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five
investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure
of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the
introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in
2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and
details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate,
applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of
these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real
estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not
require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and
that Lehman's own methods were flawed.
inspire confidence in the valuation of their real estate assets, especially in 2007 and 2008, when prices in the real estate market were falling.
Recognized procedures have been developed by standard-setting bodies for valuation in the USA and in the UK. International standards are in the process of being established by the International Valuation Standards Council, a long-time partner of the Appraisal Foundation. This chapter draws on the procedures as set out by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors in London, and the Appraisal Foundation
These are the key points arising from the Examiner's analysis of Lehman's approach to valuation. The purpose of this chapter is to detail the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations.
Interagency Appraisal and Valuation Guidelines
These are the guidelines which applied before 2008. They include Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act 1989, which required the agencies to provide
lies in its systematic and multilayered examination of various key themes of the Fascist depiction of Britain (including unstudied factors
such as race, military analysis and economic appraisals) and in an analysis of how
these were received by the Italian population through various means, including
the Fascist reports on public opinion.
This book addresses Anglophobia as well as the influence of ideology in the
Fascist assessment of Britain. It will research the origins and development of
Anglophobic depictions of Britain before and during the
analysis will be put into the context of an
appraisal of the importance of gender, lordship and the way that family
connections were indicated through countergifts. This will be achieved
through a consideration of the importance of the type(s) of countergift
that women received, and, where appropriate, this will be put into a
comparative framework with those received by men. Thus it is argued
that an analysis of countergifts should properly be studied in sociocultural contexts but with an awareness of the impact of gender and the
demands of tenurial lordship. Lordship is