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Witchcraft and magic in Enlightenment Europe

This book looks at aspects of the continuation of witchcraft and magic in Europe from the last of the secular and ecclesiastical trials during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, through to the nineteenth century. It provides a brief outline of witch trials in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland. By the second half of the seventeenth century, as the witch trials reached their climax in Sweden, belief in the interventionist powers of the Devil had become a major preoccupation of the educated classes. Having acknowledged the slight possibility of real possession by the Devil, Benito Feijoo threw himself wholeheartedly into his real objective: to expose the falseness of the majority of the possessed. The book is concerned with accusations of magic, which were formalised as denunciations heard by the Inquisition of the Archdiocese of Capua, a city twelve miles north of Naples, during the first half of the eighteenth century. One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological record of the subject. As a part of the increasing interest in 'popular' culture, historians have become more conscious of the presence of witchcraft after the witch trials. The aftermath of the major witch trials in Dalarna, Sweden, demonstrates how the authorities began the awkward process of divorcing themselves from popular concerns and beliefs regarding witchcraft.

9 Beyond the witch trials Counter-witchcraft and popular magic The archaeology of counter-witchcraft and popular magic Brian Hoggard One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological record of the subject. Objects such as witch-bottles, dried cats, horse skulls, shoes, written charms and numerous other items have been discovered concealed inside houses in significant quantities from the early modern period until well into the twentieth century. The locations

in Beyond the witch trials
Was he more than just ‘Dr Took’?

seems to have been clearly someone who was subject to periods of intense activity that had great influence on the work of his contemporaries, as well as those antiquaries and academics that followed, and without which we would have far lesser understanding of the archaeological record of the Wessex region. Yet, unlike many fellow antiquarians, for example, he did not publish his own observations, favouring the communication of such to other contemporary scholars. There are, it seems to me, three forms of network to which Toope’s work contributes, and these might be

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
New stories on rafted ice

continents. In the North American Arctic and Greenland, the archaeological record and Inuit oral histories document occupation by the mysterious Tuniit people, who are understood to have been distinct from New stories on rafted ice     21 and displaced by a twelfth-​/​thirteenth-​century migration of Inuit from Eurasia and Alaska (McGhee, 2006). The migration and success of the Inuit people over a wide range of territory that came to be encompassed by the emerging Russian, Canadian, American and Danish states were later a key element underlining the regional nature of the

in Arctic governance
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critiques of society, new plans for reform, new movements and new ideological debate. These stages, for want of a better word, will not take place in a vacuum. They are usually ‘archaeologicalrecords of social and economic, intellectual and moral changes and the struggles connected with them. Ideologies and movements that fail to adapt to social change, that do not reflect its direction and impetus

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

continuous, however. Periods of broken occupation of particular islands ended with fresh arrivals. Islander memory and myth records waves of migration such as these. There is evidence also in the archaeological record. Moreover, stratified chiefdoms created in a process of state formation were significant factors in the twelfth-​to thirteenth-​ century shift in migratory patterns. Territorial polities cropped up in the eleventh and twelfth centuries in Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Hawaii and Tonga. Stratified state organisations and practices emanated to smaller

in Debating civilisations
Enigmas, agency and assemblage

with a partly supernatural power, it was surely the boon of the whalebone itself that warranted the creation of such a time-​consuming, high-​status artefact. As Vicki Ellen Szabo points out, ‘the material must matter, otherwise its origins would not have merited mention’. One must ‘question whether the material would have merited inscription if it had been something more mundane; the archaeological record offers few such examples’ and so the inscription on the front ‘implies that the material itself is as fantastic as any of the magical iconography 131 The riddles

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture