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The canadianizing 1920s
Katie Pickles

single women, who the IODE hoped might migrate to Canada and there become wives and mothers. Well aware of the importance of mothers in passing on culture, the IODE performed a considerable amount of maternal work with new immigrants. It was the IODE members’ place to attempt assimilation in the homes of ‘foreigners’, this being considered ‘women’s work’. As female imperialists, they used techniques

in Female imperialism and national identity
On the return of the Jewish question

Universalism has acted as a stimulus for Jewish emancipation, that is, for civil, political and social inclusion. It has also been a source of anti-Jewish prejudice up to and beyond the classic antisemitism of the modern period. While the experience of Jews is by no means unique in this respect, one of the peculiarities of the 'anti-Judaic' tradition has been to represent Jews in some important regard as the 'other' of the universal: as the personification either of a particularism opposed to the universal, or of a false universalism concealing Jewish self-interest. The former contrasts the particularism of the Jews to the universality of bourgeois civil society. The latter contrasts the bad universalism of the 'rootless cosmopolitan Jew' to the good universalism of whatever universal is advanced: nation, race or class. This book explores debates over Jewish emancipation within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, contrasting the work of two leading protagonists of Jewish emancipation: Christian von Dohm and Moses Mendelssohn. It discusses the emancipatory power of Karl Marx's critique of Bruno Bauer's opposition to Jewish emancipation and endorsement of The Jewish Question. Marxist debates over the growth of anti-Semitism; Hannah Arendt's critique of three types of Jewish responsiveness--assimilationism, Zionism and cosmopolitanism-- to anti-Semitism; and the endeavours of a leading postwar critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas are also discussed. Finally, the book focuses its critique on left antizionists who threaten to reinstate the Jewish question when they identify Israel and Zionism as the enemies of universalism.

Hannah Arendt’s Jewish writings
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

‘crime against humanity … perpetrated on the body of the Jewish people’. 27 The issue of responsibility Arendt raised was how victims responded to the dual aspect of the threat they faced – as Jews and as human beings. She maintained that the two types of political consciousness she addressed, assimilationism and Zionism, were both one-sided: assimilationism identifies with the ‘universal’ at the expense of the ‘particular’, which it treats

in Antisemitism and the left
Familiarisation and estrangement in Seamus Heaney’s later poetry
Joanna Cowper

memory and hindsight’.6 This collection begins a new cycle of familiarisation as Heaney explores a new state of being, whereby ‘home’ is no longer located outside the self, but within it. The concept of assimilation of place and experience into self is central to Electric Light, and it is the resultant concept that ‘home’ exists both as a physical location and as an interiorised state that enables Heaney 9780719075636_4_009.qxd 162 17/2/09 2:11 PM Page 162 Poetry to travel in Greece, France, Spain and into the remembered past, without the need to dislocate

in Irish literature since 1990
Stephen J. Kunitz

Bayly 06_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:23 Page 146 6 Healthcare policy for American Indians since the early twentieth century Stephen J. Kunitz In the English-speaking liberal democracies of North America and Oceania, European contact with indigenous peoples caused catastrophic population losses initially, and recovery only relatively recently. In addition, policies with respect to the treatment of the original indigenous inhabitants have been broadly similar, moving from subjugation to assimilation to self-determination (Kunitz 1994). In all four of the settler

in History, historians and development policy
Lamine Kane, Aliou Guissé, and Latyr Diouf

full project proposal, which was funded by a partnership grant from the British Council. Context Senegal is a former French colony and Dakar was the base from which France conceived and implemented its ‘assimilation policy’, which aimed to make Senegalese citizens French and to integrate them into the French culture and nation. To this end, education was assigned the role of familiarizing students in the colonies with the European order – economic, social and moral – as a first step towards integration. African students read European textbooks and wrote essays on

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Open Access (free)
Universalism and the Jewish question
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

transforms what is relative and valid into what is absolute and invalid. As Theodor Adorno phrased it, the threat posed by universalism is to ‘compress the particular like a torture instrument’. 17 Jewish assimilationism and nationalism have both been subjective responses to the contradictions of living in an antisemitic society. One makes an ‘ism’ of assimilating to the norms of society as the only means of neutralising an otherwise understandable antisemitism; the

in Antisemitism and the left
Irish fiction and autobiography since 1990
Liam Harte

(1999) to the nameless narrator of Seamus Deane’s Reading in the Dark (1996), one of the texts discussed by Stephen Regan in his chapter for this section. Trauma in this novel-cum-autobiography is experienced both as a catastrophic knowledge that cannot be articulated and as a memory that simultaneously resists assimilation and demands constant iteration. The boy-narrator’s desire to witness himself in the darkness of history, to do what his father fails to do – ‘make the story his own’38 – inscribes an analogous circularity, in that his quest for palpable knowledge

in Irish literature since 1990
The Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire
Author: Katie Pickles

Through a study of the British Empire's largest women's patriotic organisation, formed in 1900 and still in existence, this book examines the relationship between female imperialism and national identity. It throws light on women's involvement in imperialism; on the history of ‘conservative’ women's organisations; on women's interventions in debates concerning citizenship and national identity; and on the history of women in white settler societies. After placing the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) in the context of recent scholarly work in Canadian, gender and imperial history, and post-colonial theory, the book follows the IODE's history through the twentieth century. Chapters focus upon the IODE's attempts to create a British Canada through its maternal feminist work in education, health, welfare and citizenship. In addition, the book reflects on the IODE's responses to threats to Anglo-Canadian hegemony posed by immigration, World Wars and Communism, and examines the complex relationship between imperial loyalty and settler nationalism. Tracing the organisation into the postcolonial era, where previous imperial ideas are outmoded, it considers the transformation from patriotism to charity, and the turn to colonisation at home in the Canadian North.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.