Mike Huggins

3 Off-course betting, bookmaking and the British n 1923 an assistant mistress of a London County Council boys’ school reported that betting was fairly general in her class. While she and the head took this seriously, the boys treated it as nothing wrong, and her remonstrations as a joke. They were actually ‘encouraged by their parents’. She felt helpless. She could not go to the police because ‘in a poor neighbourhood it is a very dangerous thing to excite the animosity of the parents’.1 The popularity of betting in that particular culture was clear. His Majesty

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Mike Huggins

4 Declining opposition to betting on racing hen Mass Observation studied Bolton in 1938 it noticed a number of ‘major oppositions’ which cut across the life of the community, separating married couples and families – issues about which persons apparently alike with respect to income, age, appearance or knowledge might violently differ or feel resentment. One was the drinking of alcohol. Another was betting.1 They were defined as part of dominant popular culture or as part of oppositional culture, depending on one’s social identity. Betting was an intensely

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Author: Mike Huggins

This book provides a detailed consideration of the history of racing in British culture and society, and explores the cultural world of racing during the interwar years. The book shows how racing gave pleasure even to the supposedly respectable middle classes and gave some working-class groups hope and consolation during economically difficult times. Regular attendance and increased spending on betting were found across class and generation, and women too were keen participants. Enjoyed by the royal family and controlled by the Jockey Club and National Hunt Committee, racing's visible emphasis on rank and status helped defend hierarchy and gentlemanly amateurism, and provided support for more conservative British attitudes. The mass media provided a cumulative cultural validation of racing, helping define national and regional identity, and encouraging the affluent consumption of sporting experience and a frank enjoyment of betting. The broader cultural approach of the first half of the book is followed by an exploration if the internal culture of racing itself.

An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

reluctant to participate in the operation at first, precisely because it involved military action. But once the UN was already there, we agreed to participate in the re-establishment of order, as part of a democratic project. There was a crucial moment, when [René] Préval was elected. He wasn’t viewed entirely favourably by the US. They might have bet against him, which would have led to chaos. Brazil had no prejudice against Préval and nothing to gain from him either. When this moment arrived, after speaking with Lula and [Chilean President Ricardo] Lagos

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

really enforced). This means states at best have to hedge their bets (trying to retain the goodwill of both China and the US) and at worst can simply flout those rules with impunity. It is far too early to talk about a renegotiated set of rules, but it is clear that the result of such a new dispensation – the forging of a set of arrangements that both sides can live with and benefit from – will by definition be further from the preferences of the US, a unipolar and even hegemonic power for much of the last three decades and the primary liberal

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

, the relationship between racing and the media, the status of trainers and jockeys, owners and breeders, betting, bookmaking and its policing, and the experience of actually attending the races in a period supposedly characterised by economic hardships and depression, unemployment and misery. In exploring such topics, it becomes clear that a study of racing also adds a vital dimension to debates amongst historians about the extent of social harmony, the political and social predominance of conservatism, the construction of gender identities, national sentiment, and

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

by 1937, and many others unaffiliated. In terms of spectatorship, First Division soccer attracted average crowds of over 30,000 in 1938–39, but cricket only got large crowds for test matches and a few important county matches, and these probably never exceeded 50,000 in a single day. Such figures were dwarfed by the crowds attracted to racing’s ‘national’ events: the Grand National, the Derby, ‘Royal’ Ascot and the Doncaster St Leger. Even small racemeetings got higher crowds than most country cricket games. If a third criterion, interest in betting on the sport

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Mike Huggins

British racing as at least occasional spectators and betters. In London alone over 500,000 copies of racing editions of evening papers were sold daily. The industry employed full-time trainers, breeders and their employees, racecourse employees and jockeys. Thousands of bookmakers took racing bets. Racing also supported a wide variety of ancillary trades, including not only local saddlers, suppliers of racing breeches and silks, blacksmiths, farmers who provided forage and veterinary surgeons, but also horse photographers and artists, jewellers who designed and made

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Mike Huggins

the premier races, with their sustained dramatic action, contributed to the creation of an emerging mass culture. In the late 1930s the first television coverage arrived. The inter-relationships between racing and British culture, society and the media were ambiguous, complicated and subtle. The following sections explore the highly complex, sophisticated and resolutely populist cultural representations of racing and betting in the mass media, whose ideological power and dominant, negotiated and oppositional influences played a crucial role in fostering British

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Open Access (free)
The racecourse and racecourse life
Mike Huggins

ministers, the judiciary, military leaders, and bankers, helping to integrate old and new money and power. House parties were another long-standing tradition for the races, offering The racecourse and racecourse life excitement, intrigue, betting and select sociability, alongside ostentatious display. While this was at its peak for Royal Ascot it could be found in the provinces too. Despite the growing impact of death duties, and reduced income, the Aintree meeting still attracted the north-western upper classes in large numbers. In 1930 Lord Derby stayed at Knowlsey

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39