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Civilian morale in Britain during the Second World War
Author: Robert Mackay

How well did civilian morale stand up to the pressures of total war and what factors were important to it? This book rejects contentions that civilian morale fell a long way short of the favourable picture presented at the time and in hundreds of books and films ever since. While acknowledging that some negative attitudes and behaviour existed—panic and defeatism, ration-cheating and black-marketeering—it argues that these involved a very small minority of the population. In fact, most people behaved well, and this should be the real measure of civilian morale, rather than the failing of the few who behaved badly. The book shows that although before the war, the official prognosis was pessimistic, measures to bolster morale were taken nevertheless, in particular with regard to protection against air raids. An examination of indicative factors concludes that moral fluctuated but was in the main good, right to the end of the war. In examining this phenomenon, due credit is accorded to government policies for the maintenance of morale, but special emphasis is given to the ‘invisible chain’ of patriotic feeling that held the nation together during its time of trial.

How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

Ansar Allah’s hands ( al-Iriyani and Nasser, 2021 ), and in Nigeria, where both Boko Haram and the Nigerian Army stand accused of illicit trading, sometimes with each other ( Miller, forthcoming 2022 ). War economies can exist independently of PMs but are fertile breeding grounds for the marketisation of politics and are a characteristic of armed conflicts in PMs. Black-marketeering and profiteering from the supply of food and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
Michael McConnell

, institutionalized this language, ordering that the term ‘bandit’ replace the word ‘partisan’ in all correspondence, in an effort to coordinate policy and encourage aggressiveness.16 This decree effectively criminalized resistance while simultaneously extending what was deemed to be DHR.indb 74 5/15/2014 12:51:09 PM The Nazi imagination of the East  75 part of the anti-partisan effort to action against common criminality such as black marketeering, petty theft, and smuggling, which were in fact caused by the occupation’s exploitative economic policies. The term ‘bandit’ was

in Destruction and human remains
James E. Connolly

economic self-​interest. Indeed, Salson categorises hiding goods as more a form of ‘evasion’ than contestation.129 Others may have engaged in black marketeering and did not want the authorities (German or French) to find out. Yet I believe that these actions do represent a form of opposition. Likewise, Debarge sees the motives as a combination of economic resistance, a desire not to furnish goods which could be used against the Patrie and the preservation of property.130 Many occupés perceived their non-​compliance thusly, a means of withholding resources from the

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18