Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Barbara Czarniawska

9 Virtual red tape, or digital v. paper bureaucracy Barbara Czarniawska Our everyday Camusian-existential struggle […] is played ‘as if’ it were unfolding within a labyrinth-like bureaucracy, as we wrestle with the increasing complexity of contemporary life, with its spider’s web of rules and regulations, some often contradicting the others. (Warner, 2007: 1028) Framing technology has changed: what about overflows? Before I move to the main topic of my chapter, ‘virtual red tape’ as a new way of framing bureaucratic overflows, a few words about bureaucracy. Max

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Brendan T. Lawson

of bureaucracy but also the agency of refugees to function within, and potentially manipulate, this system. In doing so, it brings the critical literature on counting refugees ( Harrell-Bond et al. , 1992 ; Malkki, 1996 ; Crisp, 1999 ; Harrell-Bond, 2002 ) into the twenty-first century. Such a piece of research emphasises the importance of adopting an ethnographical or observational approach to processes of quantification. It places the discussions about concepts

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. Organisations were unsure whether to list all the items they wanted to bring to the DPRK or only sanctioned items, with different groups taking different approaches (anonymous interview, 2019). Areas of confusion related to UNSC exemptions that came up in interviews included the presence of instructions but a lack of clarity around how things worked in practice, and difficult and opaque bureaucracy. Not all interviewees agreed with this, with one American interviewee finding the UN process clearer than the US process and containing better feedback. American interviewees

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decolonisation to which it led, the ‘complex emergencies’ of the 1990s created policy problems with which they have often allowed humanitarians to deal. This created a kind of ‘plausible deniability’ consistent with neoliberal principles that stress privatisation and the shrinking of public bureaucracy. This provides a convenient answer to the question of what is being done and a simple way to maintain an arms-length relationship between engagement in messy political problems and denial (give money, award projects, do not do it yourself, blame others

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Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
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-of-the-Humanitarian-System.pdf (accessed 16 September 2017) . Thompson , V. A. ( 1965 ), ‘ Bureaucracy and Innovation ’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 10 : 1 , 1 – 20 , www-jstor-org.ezproxy-f.deakin.edu.au/stable/pdf/2391646.pdf (accessed 25 October 2016) . Tidd , J

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Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
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unwieldy bureaucracies that dominated in the past ( Betts and Bloom, 2014 ). The concept of innovation has sometimes been articulated in terms of the 4Ps – new products, new processes, new positioning and new paradigms – which flowed from the private sector to turn powerless beneficiaries into empowered consumers ( Ramalingam et al. , 2009 ). The central argument, for many, is that the humanitarian sector lacks the cut and thrust of a competitive

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). Desgrandchamps , M-L. ( 2018b ), ‘Du Congo au Biafra. Guerres civiles et actions humanitaires dans les relations internationales postcoloniales’ , Relations internationales , 176 : 4 , 55 – 67 . Dimier , V. ( 2014 ), The Invention of a European Development Aid Bureaucracy: Recycling Empire

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Dalia Abdelhady, Nina Gren, and Martin Joormann

violence of welfare bureaucracies crisis almost vanished from public discourse a few months later. What remains, however, are debates about what institutional arrangements are best suited to ‘integrate’ the refugees and maximise their utility for the welfare state they encounter. Despite the spotlight, whether during the ‘long summer of migration’ in 2015 (Hess et al., 2016; Odugbesan and Schwiertz, 2018), which led to the constructed notion of a refugee crisis, or in the many welfare state interventions that target refugees across Europe, little is known about the

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
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Understanding the violence of the benevolent welfare state in Norway
Nerina Weiss

and the violence of welfare bureaucracies are characterised as ‘simple accommodations’ [nøktern botilbud], which should secure the inhabitants’ basic needs and security (UDI Rundskriv RS 2008-031). Such centres are either centralised, that is refugees living in the same building as the camp administration – former hotels, schools or other institutions, or decentralised, in which case the refugees and asylum seekers are allocated ordinary flats or houses in vicinity to the camp administration. Such decentralised reception centres are usually preferred, as the

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe