From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

specifically, it examines the ways UNRWA’s operational changes since January 2018 have been experienced and conceptualised by Palestinians living in Lebanon. It does so through a multiscalar analysis, tracing and examining processes taking place in the international arena, on regional and national levels in the Middle East and within the Palestinian refugee camps of Lebanon. 1 In January 2018, the US Government declared that it would contribute only $60 million to UNRWA (compared to $364 million the previous year) 2 unless the Agency undertook

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Mladen Dolar

3 Nothing has changed Mladen Dolar In Whoroscope, one of his first published texts, the poem which won a poetry competition in 1930, Beckett aims an elaborate blow at Descartes. There is the philosopher of the methodical reduction, the reduction of all supports in the outside world, in perception, in the body, reduction of all supports in questionable inner certainties, safe traditions and evident truths, reduction of both contingency and necessity, external and internal, in order to arrive to the minimal point of certainty, the firm rock of cogito, the prop of

in Beckett and nothing
Author: Jenny Edkins

Despite the imperative for change in a world of persistent inequality, racism, oppression and violence, difficulties arise once we try to bring about a transformation. As scholars, students and activists, we may want to change the world, but we are not separate, looking in, but rather part of the world ourselves. The book demonstrates that we are not in control: with all our academic rigour, we cannot know with certainty why the world is the way it is, or what impact our actions will have. It asks what we are to do, if this is the case, and engages with our desire to seek change. Chapters scrutinise the role of intellectuals, experts and activists in famine aid, the Iraq war, humanitarianism and intervention, traumatic memory, enforced disappearance, and the Grenfell Tower fire, and examine the fantasy of security, contemporary notions of time, space and materiality, and ideas of the human and sentience. Plays and films by Michael Frayn, Chris Marker and Patricio Guzmán are considered, and autobiographical narrative accounts probe the author’s life and background. The book argues that although we might need to traverse the fantasy of certainty and security, we do not need to give up on hope.

The poetics of sustainability and the politics of what we’re sustaining
Matthew Griffiths

11 Jorie Graham’s Sea Change: the poetics of sustainability and the politics of what we’re sustaining Matthew Griffiths In her 2008 collection Sea Change, US poet Jorie Graham pursues a concern about how language can engage with and represent material force, a concern that has preoccupied her in previous work. But Sea Change marks a distinct development of this in two key respects: not only does Graham adopt and sustain a particular form throughout the book to explore the tension between word and world, her concerns also inform a number of pieces that refer

in Literature and sustainability
Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.

Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

5 Geopolitical imperatives of system change Order and security in post-Cold War Europe Introduction This chapter addresses the question of how change at the international system level has produced those political outcomes related to European security and defence design post-Cold War. It is both a description and an evaluation of the way in which Europe’s security arena has changed, as well as an attempt to come to terms with the process that led to the ‘internalisation’ of system change. By ‘internalisation’ we mean the process – or better, the causal

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Eşref Aksu

normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts has evolved unevenly but appreciably in terms of both objectives and authority, with the shift in the pattern of prescribed functions emerging as one important indicator of this change. Objectives were conceptualised here with reference to four key principles enshrined in the UN Charter, namely peace and security, state

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
Heterogeneous temporalities, algorithmic frames and subjective time in geomedia
Pablo Abend

4 Seasons change, so do we: heterogeneous temporalities, algorithmic frames and subjective time in geomedia Pablo Abend The frozen circumstances of space only come alive when the melody of time is played. (Thrift, 1977: 448) Introduction As distinct from the moving image, it has been argued that the purpose of maps is to codify spatial knowledge in stagnant form by affording a firm coupling of standardised cartographic signs. Bruno Latour treats the map as an archetypal ‘immutable mobile’, or more precisely as an ‘immutable and combinable mobile’ (Latour, 1986

in Time for mapping
The evolving European security architecture
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

6 Institutional imperatives of system change The evolving European security architecture Introduction The European landscape is changing rapidly, not least owing to a series of decisions taken in the second half of the 1990s. In June 1996, NATO’s foreign ministers decided to adopt ESDI ‘within the Alliance’ and to develop the CJTF concept. In May 1997, NATO and Russia agreed to establish a Joint Permanent Council. In June 1997, EU leaders reached agreement on the AMT. In July 1997 in Madrid, NATO agreed on the admission of three new members (Poland, Hungary and

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

9780719075636_4_001.qxd 16/2/09 9:23 AM Page 3 1 Changing history: the Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990 Michael Parker Someone asks me for directions, and I think again. I turn into A side street to try to throw off my shadow, and history is changed. (Ciaran Carson, ‘Turn Again’, Belfast Confetti, Gallery, 1989) Given the variety and energy of Irish creative and critical writing and its contribution to re-thinking relationships, histories and futures within and beyond Ireland, the first decade of the twenty-first century seems an opportune moment

in Irish literature since 1990