Open Access (free)
Dennis Ray Knight Jr.

If he is known for anything other than his writings, James Baldwin is best known for his work as a civil rights activist. What is often overlooked is Baldwin’s work toward uniting two under-represented and oppressed groups: African Americans and homosexuals. With his first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, Baldwin began a career of speaking about and for homosexuals and their relationship with the institutions of African-American communities. Through its focus on a sensitive, church-going teenager, Go Tell It on the Mountain dramatizes the strain imposed upon homosexual members of African-American communities within the Pentecostal Church through its religious beliefs.

James Baldwin Review
James Baldwin, the Religious Right, and the Moral Minority
Joseph Vogel

In the 1980s, James Baldwin recognized that a major transformation had occurred in the socio-political functions of religion. His critique adapted accordingly, focusing on the ways in which religion—particularly white evangelical Christianity—had morphed into a movement deeply enmeshed with mass media, conservativepolitics, and late capitalism. Religion in the Reagan era was leveraged, sold, and consumed in ways never before seen, from charismatic televangelists, to Christian-themed amusement parks, to mega-churches. The new movement was often characterized as the “religious right” or the “Moral Majority” and was central to both Reagan’s political coalition as well as the broader culture wars. For Baldwin, this development had wide-ranging ramifications for society and the individual. This article draws on Baldwin’s final major essay, “To Crush the Serpent” (1987), to examine the author’s evolving thoughts on religion, salvation, and transgression in the context of the Reagan era.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
James Baldwin and the Broken Silences of Black Queer Men
McKinley E Melton

James Baldwin writes within and against the testimonial tradition emerging from the Black Church, challenging the institution’s refusal to acknowledge the voices and experiences of black queer men. Baldwin’s autobiographical novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, creates a space for Baldwin’s testimony to be expressed, and also lays the foundation for a tradition of black queer artists to follow. In the contemporary moment, poet Danez Smith inhabits Baldwin’s legacy, offering continuing critiques of the rigidity of conservative Christian ideologies, while publishing and performing poetry that gives voice to their own experiences, and those of the black queer community at large. These testimonies ultimately function as a means of rhetorical resistance, which not only articulates black queer lives and identities, but affirms them.  

James Baldwin Review
Elyse Semerdjian

This article discusses how Armenians have collected, displayed and exchanged the bones of their murdered ancestors in formal and informal ceremonies of remembrance in Dayr al-Zur, Syria – the final destination for hundreds of thousands of Armenians during the deportations of 1915. These pilgrimages – replete with overlapping secular and nationalist motifs – are a modern variant of historical pilgrimage practices; yet these bones are more than relics. Bone rituals, displays and vernacular memorials are enacted in spaces of memory that lie outside of official state memorials, making unmarked sites of atrocity more legible. Vernacular memorial practices are of particular interest as we consider new archives for the history of the Armenian Genocide. The rehabilitation of this historical site into public consciousness is particularly urgent, since the Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum and Martyr’s Church at the centre of the pilgrimage site were both destroyed by ISIS (Islamic State in Syria) in 2014.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

] and then some documents from the United States’ National Archives and Records Administration. I also conducted oral interviews in Nigeria and Canada. In fact, my fieldwork was an opportunity to meet some people who were directly involved in the relief work in Biafra. I interviewed some of the humanitarian workers from Canada and that helped a lot in my research. I also interviewed people in Nigeria. I worked on the Joint Church Aid, a consortium of Catholic and Protestant

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

and caption further suggests that the insecurity of the journey presented itself as a better option than the threats faced back home. The ongoing need to attend to basic necessities of rest and replenishment are addressed in ‘Refugees cooking meal on road to Gradletza, Serbia’ ( Figure 3 ). Figure 2: ‘Refugee family en route somewhere. Skoplie, Serbia’ Source: General Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church (GCAH-79306). Figure 3: ‘Refugees cooking meal on road to Gradletza, Serbia’ Source: General Commission on

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

to understanding not just the causes of the genocide but such problems as the level of mortality and testing the theory of double genocide ( Verwimp, 2003 , 2013 ). My own book, Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda , looks in detail at the role of Christian churches in the violence ( Longman, 2010 ). Others provide detail on specific cases. In Rwanda 1994: Les Politiques du Génocide à Butare , André Guichaoua draws on the research that he compiled for his testimony at the ICTR to discuss in depth the conduct of the genocide in the city of Butare, adding details

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

infrastructure, markets, churches and local housing ( UNMISS, 2014 : 47). In the days that followed, government armed forces pursued the population in the surrounding areas, forcing the displaced, including MSF staff, to retreat deeper and deeper into the bush. After trying to hide the cars, which were quickly stolen by soldiers, the staff escaped by crossing the river to reach the swamps, this time carrying patients on foot. Members of the local MSF team later recounted their experience

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

liberal about a majority of humanitarian practitioners, we can define it as a commitment to three things: the equal moral worth of all human lives (i.e. non-discrimination on principle), the moral priority of the claims of individuals over the authority claims of any collective entity – from nations to churches to classes to families – and a belief that as a moral commitment (one that transcends any sociological or political boundary) there is a just and legitimate reason to intervene in any and all circumstances where human beings suffer (even if

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
1980–2000
Dominique Marshall

of digital media, in the current offerings of the NFB, and within the later practice of the photographers involved. The Purpose of CIDA Development Education in Schools From its creation in 1968, CIDA engaged the public in multiple ways: by offering financial support to Churches and NGOS who sent young volunteers abroad or visited community associations and schools, by sponsoring the preparation of materials on the developing world for adult education, and by designing partnerships from its ‘NGO program’ especially to create learning centers across the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs