If he is known for anything other than his writings, James Baldwin is best known for his
work as a civil rights activist. What is often overlooked is Baldwin’s work toward uniting
two under-represented and oppressed groups: African Americans and homosexuals. With his
first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, Baldwin began a career of speaking about and for
homosexuals and their relationship with the institutions of African-American communities.
Through its focus on a sensitive, church-going teenager, Go Tell It on the Mountain
dramatizes the strain imposed upon homosexual members of African-American communities
within the Pentecostal Church through its religious beliefs.
James Baldwin, the Religious Right, and the Moral
In the 1980s, James Baldwin recognized that a major transformation had occurred in the
socio-political functions of religion. His critique adapted accordingly, focusing on the
ways in which religion—particularly white evangelical Christianity—had morphed into a
movement deeply enmeshed with mass media, conservativepolitics, and late capitalism.
Religion in the Reagan era was leveraged, sold, and consumed in ways never before seen,
from charismatic televangelists, to Christian-themed amusement parks, to mega-churches.
The new movement was often characterized as the “religious right” or the “Moral Majority”
and was central to both Reagan’s political coalition as well as the broader culture wars.
For Baldwin, this development had wide-ranging ramifications for society and the
individual. This article draws on Baldwin’s final major essay, “To Crush the Serpent”
(1987), to examine the author’s evolving thoughts on religion, salvation, and
transgression in the context of the Reagan era.
James Baldwin and the Broken Silences of Black Queer
McKinley E Melton
James Baldwin writes within and against the testimonial tradition emerging from the Black
Church, challenging the institution’s refusal to acknowledge the voices and experiences of
black queer men. Baldwin’s autobiographical novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, creates a
space for Baldwin’s testimony to be expressed, and also lays the foundation for a
tradition of black queer artists to follow. In the contemporary moment, poet Danez Smith
inhabits Baldwin’s legacy, offering continuing critiques of the rigidity of conservative
Christian ideologies, while publishing and performing poetry that gives voice to their own
experiences, and those of the black queer community at large. These testimonies ultimately
function as a means of rhetorical resistance, which not only articulates black queer lives
and identities, but affirms them.
This article discusses how Armenians have collected, displayed and exchanged the
bones of their murdered ancestors in formal and informal ceremonies of
remembrance in Dayr al-Zur, Syria – the final destination for hundreds of
thousands of Armenians during the deportations of 1915. These pilgrimages –
replete with overlapping secular and nationalist motifs – are a modern variant
of historical pilgrimage practices; yet these bones are more than relics. Bone
rituals, displays and vernacular memorials are enacted in spaces of memory that
lie outside of official state memorials, making unmarked sites of atrocity more
legible. Vernacular memorial practices are of particular interest as we consider
new archives for the history of the Armenian Genocide. The rehabilitation of
this historical site into public consciousness is particularly urgent, since the
Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum and Martyr’s Church at the centre of the
pilgrimage site were both destroyed by ISIS (Islamic State in Syria) in
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
] and then some documents from the
United States’ National Archives and Records Administration. I also conducted
oral interviews in Nigeria and Canada. In fact, my fieldwork was an opportunity to
meet some people who were directly involved in the relief work in Biafra. I
interviewed some of the humanitarian workers from Canada and that helped a lot in my
research. I also interviewed people in Nigeria. I worked on the Joint Church Aid, a
consortium of Catholic and Protestant
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
and caption further suggests that the insecurity of the journey presented itself as a better option than the threats faced back home. The ongoing need to attend to basic necessities of rest and replenishment are addressed in ‘Refugees cooking meal on road to Gradletza, Serbia’ ( Figure 3 ).
‘Refugee family en route somewhere. Skoplie, Serbia’
Source: General Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church (GCAH-79306).
‘Refugees cooking meal on road to Gradletza, Serbia’
Source: General Commission on
to understanding not just the causes of the genocide but such problems as the level of mortality and testing the theory of double genocide ( Verwimp, 2003 , 2013 ). My own book, Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda , looks in detail at the role of Christian churches in the violence ( Longman, 2010 ).
Others provide detail on specific cases. In Rwanda 1994: Les Politiques du Génocide à Butare , André Guichaoua draws on the research that he compiled for his testimony at the ICTR to discuss in depth the conduct of the genocide in the city of Butare, adding details
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South
Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper
infrastructure, markets, churches and local housing ( UNMISS, 2014 : 47). In the days that
followed, government armed forces pursued the population in the surrounding areas,
forcing the displaced, including MSF staff, to retreat deeper and deeper into the
bush. After trying to hide the cars, which were quickly stolen by soldiers, the
staff escaped by crossing the river to reach the swamps, this time carrying patients
on foot. Members of the local MSF team later recounted their experience
liberal about a majority of humanitarian
practitioners, we can define it as a commitment to three things: the equal moral worth of all
human lives (i.e. non-discrimination on principle), the moral priority of the claims of
individuals over the authority claims of any collective entity – from nations to churches
to classes to families – and a belief that as a moral commitment (one
that transcends any sociological or political boundary) there is a just and legitimate reason to
intervene in any and all circumstances where human beings suffer (even if
of digital media, in the current offerings of the NFB, and within the later practice of the photographers involved.
The Purpose of CIDA Development Education in Schools
From its creation in 1968, CIDA engaged the public in multiple ways: by offering financial support to Churches and NGOS who sent young volunteers abroad or visited community associations and schools, by sponsoring the preparation of materials on the developing world for adult education, and by designing partnerships from its ‘NGO program’ especially to create learning centers across the