Open Access (free)
Power in cross-border Cooperation

The volume explores a question that sheds light on the contested, but largely cooperative, nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: How do power relations matter – and how have they mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Through carefully selected case studies – from Russia’s role in the Arctic Council to the diplomacy of indigenous peoples’ organisations – this book seeks to shed light on how power performances are enacted constantly to shore up Arctic cooperation in key ways. The conceptually driven nature of the enquiry makes the book appropriate reading for courses in international relations and political geography, while the carefully selected case studies lend themselves to courses on Arctic politics.

Elana Wilson Rowe

documents can all tell a story about the region. This chapter seeks to highlight how these representations of the region –​ or the way in which circumpolar policy issues are framed by narrative and images –​are a manifestation of and serve to shape power relations in the region. Consider the selection of the three maps in Figures 4–​6 as an illustration of the various ways of representing the region. Figure 4 illustrates the bird migration routes connecting one nesting ground in Arctic Alaska with populations around the world. Like the ice-​locked whales discussed in

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies
Elana Wilson Rowe

within a policy field. While hegemony is frequently tied to world-​order thinking, hierarchies can differ across global policy fields and can change without disrupting broader stability in world politics. The literature on hierarchy directs us to the following questions. Who is seen to lead in circumpolar politics? What are the functions and benefits of different roles at different places on the hierarchy? How are hierarchies tied to more deeply held identities? These questions allow us to explore a second proposition about power: namely that as policy fields come

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Elana Wilson Rowe

’ coordinated chorus on the peaceful nature of the region can quickly sound too good to be true. However, if we reveal and understand better the efforts and alliances and inequalities and contestations that shore up this state of cross-​border cooperation, the Arctic ‘peace’ becomes a more recognisable  –​and possibly more replicable –​ dynamic. A focus on power is timely. The Arctic lies in an uncertain zone of the changing post-​Cold War global geopolitical imagination. While fostering narratives of circumpolar conflict (and actual conflict in other parts of the world

in Arctic governance
Elana Wilson Rowe

corresponded poorly with dominant framings of the Arctic as a wild and sparsely populated landscape (see Chapter 2). On the other hand, it is a bit surprising, in that Russia is decidedly the largest Arctic state and the country’s involvement was seen as essential to securing effective circumpolar cooperation, as we have seen in Chapter 3. There are few other examples of proposed project ideas in the Arctic Council falling between the cracks publicly as this did. However, if we fast-​forward to 2017, Russia has since successfully co-​chaired the three binding agreements

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
A power perspective on Arctic governance
Elana Wilson Rowe

Poe put it, the circumpolar North is frequently envisioned as fundamentally apart from the complexities, indeterminacies and intricacies of life and politics in other parts of the globe. We see some of this exceptionalism in the application of dichotomies to the Arctic: the Arctic will either be preserved as humanity’s last wilderness, or plundered by coastal states jealously guarding their natural resource treasure chests. All Arctic states are completely equal in Arctic governance, or the USA and Russia dominate militarily and diplomatically against a veneer of

in Arctic governance
New stories on rafted ice
Elana Wilson Rowe

organisations, like the Inuit Circumpolar Council, made a similar contribution to a conceptualisation of the Arctic as a region that transected state borders (Vik and Semb, 2013). It is important to keep in mind that the indigenous Arctic has long been a place of mobility and interconnection, even as North–​South ties remained non-​existent, weak or contested (see Dodds and Nuttall, 2015; and McGhee, 2006 for a circumpolar discussion). Historical interconnections in the Bering Strait are an interesting example of this (Fitzhugh and Crowell, 1988). While the Cold War period

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Elana Wilson Rowe

into the executive in Russia, 120 Arctic governance in the previous chapter, may make the Arctic Council one of the more important meeting spaces for a Russian organisation to meet Russian authorities. To take an Arctic example of a statement made to a broad audience, including the Arctic Council member states, ‘A circumpolar Inuit declaration on sovereignty in the Arctic’ made assertions about the peoplehood of the circumpolar Inuit, to mitigate the sovereign claims of states (see Beyers, 2014 for an extended discussion): The conduct of international relations in

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

constituted the foundation for life.14 In the more barren Murmansk Oblast, which geographically corresponds to the Kola Peninsula, fisheries and mining provided the industrial foundation for the creation of large human settlements after World War I, rendering 4 International environmental agreements in Russia the region the most densely populated area of the Circumpolar Arctic during the last half of the twentieth century.15 The fishing grounds of the adjacent Barents Sea are among the most productive in the world, and the mineral deposits of the Kola Peninsula, mainly

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia