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Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

Open Access (free)
Conversations about the past in Restoration and eighteenth-century England
Daniel Woolf

chronicles. Some of these involved very minor or domestic events rather than the great deeds that were normally expected from historians, at least according to the canons of humanist historiography, which continued to be accepted throughout the eighteenth century.38 A memorable tale, once learned, was liberated from its paper and vellum prison, to be recounted again and again, the way jokes and urban folk-tales circulate today. Anecdotes became social tools, used to make points not only in private correspondence, but also in civil conversation. It was not unusual to find

in The spoken word
Staging visual clues and early modern aspiration
Jackie Watson

shift which made reality uncertain, and mixed vice and virtue in a potentially dangerous fashion. Pettie’s 1581 translation of Guazzo’s Civil Conversation notes: That he which is evill and taken to bee good, may doe muche mischiefe. Notwithstanding, I put these same in the number of the tollerable: for though it trouble your conscience to come in their companie, yet you give no occasion of mislike to the worlde, for that they are not reputed evill[.]31 The recognition of evil, while at the same time deciding to classify it as ‘tollerable’, is a demonstration of the

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660