the question whether analysis of such different features of attacks are served
well by the same inclusion criteria for datasets. A key question is when to call
an attack an attack.
Monitoring mechanisms take different perspectives on this question.
Unsurprisingly, the classification of targeting has been highlighted as
particularly difficult to assess in monitoring efforts (see Briody et al. , 2018 ),
including within the SSA ( Mülhausen
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
assistance has been steadily increasing ( Norad, 2016 ).
The sectors for which evaluations have taken place appear to differ significantly from the funding flows. This requires some context, as the OECD classifications of funding do not necessarily align with the UN OCHA sectors utilised in this study. For example, the UN OCHA sectors/clusters of ‘health’ and ‘nutrition’ might be funded under humanitarian assistance, along with ‘coordination’, ‘disaster management’, ‘post emergency recovery’ and ‘protection’. If these sectors are combined, 53 (54%) of the evaluation
Measuring difference, numbering normal provides a detailed study of the technological construction of disability by examining how the audiometer and spirometer were used to create numerical proxies for invisible and inarticulable experiences. Measurements, and their manipulation, have been underestimated as crucial historical forces motivating and guiding the way we think about disability. Using measurement technology as a lens, this book draws together several existing discussions on disability, healthcare, medical practice, embodiment and emerging medical and scientific technologies at the turn of the twentieth century. As such, this work connects several important and usually separate academic subject areas and historical specialisms. The standards embedded in instrumentation created strict but ultimately arbitrary thresholds of normalcy and abnormalcy. Considering these standards from a long historical perspective reveals how these dividing lines shifted when pushed. The central thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. These measurement processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwar years in Britain as the previously invisible limits of the body were made visible and measurable. Determination to consider body processes as quantifiable was driven by the need to compensate for disability occasioned by warfare or industry. This focus thus draws attention to the biopower associated with systems, which has emerged as a central area of concern for modern healthcare in the second decade of the twenty-first century.
The gothic novel in Ireland, 1760–1830 offers a compelling account of the development of gothic literature in late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century Ireland. Against traditional scholarly understandings of Irish gothic fiction as a largely late-nineteenth century development, this study recovers to view a whole body of Irish literary production too often overlooked today. Its robust examination of primary texts, the contexts in which they were produced, and the critical perspectives from which they have been analysed yields a rigorous account of the largely retrospective formal and generic classifications that have worked to eliminate eighteenth-century and Romantic-era Irish fiction from the history of gothic literature. The works assessed here powerfully demonstrate that what we now understand as typical of ‘the gothic novel’– medieval, Catholic Continental settings; supernatural figures and events; an interest in the assertion of British modernity – is not necessarily what eighteenth- and nineteenth-century readers or writers would have identified as ‘gothic’. They moreover point to the manner in which scholarly focus on the national tale and allied genres has effected an erasure of the continued production and influence of gothic literature in Romantic Ireland. Combining quantitative analysis with meticulous qualitative readings of a selection of representative texts, this book sketches a new formal, generic, and ideological map of gothic literary production in this period. As it does so, it persuasively positions Irish works and authors at the centre of a newly understood paradigm of the development of the literary gothic across Ireland, Britain, and Europe between 1760 and 1830.
Indian [ sic ] were British, but the projects of state
building in both countries – documentation, legitimation,
classification, and bounding, and the institutions therewith
– often reflected theories, experiences, and practices
worked out originally in India and then applied to Great
Britain, as well as vice versa. Many aspects of metropolitan
, on the
Isle of Man. On the basis of Winston Churchill’s notorious order, ‘collar
the lot!’, all enemy aliens still at liberty in Britain were rounded up in
June 1940, when invasion by Germany seemed very likely.
My father, who had come to Britain from Germany in February 1938, was
a class C ‘enemy alien’ (recognised as a genuine refugee, and officially
designated a ‘friendly’ enemy alien). The classifications were made by
wartime tribunals set up in Britain in 1939. Those classified ‘A’ were
considered to be of highest risk, and likely Nazi sympathisers, and
Lesbian citizenship and filmmaking in Sweden in the 1970s
a company called Tjejfilm [‘Chick Film’] in Gothenburg.
Both were funded by the state agency Socialstyrelsen [The National Board
of Health and Welfare] and are the first cases of publicly funded films
made by, with and about open lesbians in Sweden. Paradoxically, the same
state agency was at this time also in charge of the official classification of
homosexuality as a mental disorder (Socialstyrelsen, 1968). However, just
a few years later the classification would be dropped and an official government report, ‘Utredningen om homosexuellas situation i samhället
Discourses, contestation and alternative consumption
The political morality of food: discourses,
contestation and alternative consumption
Anthropology and sociology have been keen to show that consumption is a
social and moral field, and that consumer practices are part of an ongoing
process of negotiation of social classifications and hierarchies. Food consumption in particular has been associated with symbolically mediated
notions of order (Douglas and Isherwood 1979). We know that particular
foods are identified with annual festivities, set apart for
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
, when it was first
presented in the EP’s Draft Treaty on European Union.29 During the IGCs
1990/91, it was rejected on the grounds that such a system refers to a de facto classification of levels of governance as well as a de jure classification of institutions
involved in policy-making top-down. Nevertheless, Declaration 16 attached to
the TEU proclaims that ‘The IGC agrees that the IGC to be convened in 1996
will examine the degree to which it is possible to revise the classification of the
Community Acts so as to arrive at a hierarchy in the various Community Acts
sleep-related eating disorders? Icing sugar falling like snow from the night sky? No: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) had changed the way the way that it measured Body Mass Index (BMI).
Previously the United States had classified men with a BMI of 27.8 or above and women with a BMI of 27.3 or above as overweight. However, in 1998 it shifted the measurement down to 25, to fall in line with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standardised classification system and to allow for easier calculability. 1 In one fell swoop thousands more people in the US were