James Baldwin’s Voice in “Notes of a Native Son”
Beth Tillman

This article is a close analysis of Baldwin’s voice in the essay “Notes of a Native Son.” Much has been written about Baldwin’s themes, but without his singular voice, the power of his works would not endure. Through his use of diction, repetition, alliteration and assonance, scene selection, and even punctuation, Baldwin provides the reader with a transformative experience by rendering his own experience accessible. The political and the personal are inextricable, a truth made unavoidable by the way Baldwin writes as much as by the subject he chooses. Examining how he crafts his voice allows us to understand more deeply the power of “Notes of a Native Son.”

James Baldwin Review
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

UNRWA on their mobile phones and/or laptops; all quotes from the circulars are taken verbatim from the documents on file with the author. In undertaking this close reading of the documents, I trace the nature and implications of a series of UNRWA’s more ‘private’ responses to the 2018 cuts, with a particular focus on shifts in educational and maternal and neonatal health services on the one hand and employment and pension rights on the other. I thus illustrate the extent to which UNRWA’s operational changes are invisible on the international

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Reading James Baldwin’s Existential Hindsight in Go Tell It on the Mountain
Miller Wilbourn

This essay reads James Baldwin’s first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, through the lenses of European existentialism and Black existential thought to arrive at a new understanding of the novel itself as well as essential stages of its development. Archival sources and close reading reveal Baldwin’s historically and existentially informed artistic vision, summed up in the terms hindsight and insight. His thoughtful, uncomfortable engagement with the past leads to a recuperated relationship to the community and constitutes existential hindsight, which informs his inward understanding of himself—his insight. This investigation draws on various works from Baldwin’s fiction, essays, interviews, and correspondence to arrive at a better understanding of the writer’s intellectual and artistic development, focusing especially on the professed objectives behind, and major revisions of, the novel. I conclude the essay through a close reading of the conversion scene that constitutes Part Three of Go Tell It on the Mountain.

James Baldwin Review
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond
Catia Gregoratti

. Our analysis below unpacks the discourses and knowledge that produce representations of a particular problem: the problem of refugee women. This requires a close reading of the representations that render a problem legible and amenable to humanitarian intervention. The wider study of problematisation is not an exclusive concern for those interested in formal public policy, laws and governmental programmes. It has found applications in studies concerned with how authorities other than

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Steve Sohmer

publish Seven Types of Ambiguity ,which, alongside The Meaning of Meaning produced by his tutor I. A. Richards and collaborator C. K. Ogden, became foundational texts of the ‘New Criticism’, modern literary theory, semiotics, and the practice we know as ‘close reading’. Ever since, literary scholars have parsed, deconstructed, interrogated, and

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Open Access (free)
British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation
Berthold Schoene

5 The Union and Jack: British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation BERTHOLD SCHOENE Starting with a general theoretical investigation into nationalist imageries of masculine and feminine embodiment, this essay offers a tentative outline of some of the most problematic shifts in the conceptualisation and literary representation of man, self and nation in Britain throughout the twentieth century. The second part of the essay comprises a close reading of John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger (1993 [1956]), which is to illustrate the syndromic inextricability

in Across the margins
Open Access (free)
The imperial metropolis of Heart of Darkness
Laura Chrisman

imperial metropolitan perspective. Ultimately what animates and controls the Company and Kurtz are urban corporate power, public opinion and consumption. I am proposing this reading of Heart of Darkness as a path-clearing exercise for future critical and theoretical analyses of metropolitan imperialism. This modest activity I justify on the grounds that it is precisely, and only, through close reading that the full import of the interplay of the metropolis and imperialism can be traced. Part of this text’s subtlety lies in its depiction of colonialism’s casual

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Gender and narrative in the postcolonial nation

Why is the nation in a post-colonial world so often seen as a motherland? This study explores the relationship between gender icons and foundational fictions of the nation in different post-colonial spaces. The author's work on the intersections between independence, nationalism and gender has already proved canonical in the field. This book combines her keynote essays on the mother figure and the post-colonial nation with new work on male autobiography, ‘daughter’ writers, the colonial body, the trauma of the post-colony and the nation in a transnational context. Focusing on Africa as well as South Asia, and sexuality as well as gender, the author offers close readings of writers ranging from Chinua Achebe, Ben Okri and Nelson Mandela to Arundhati Roy and Yvonne Vera, shaping these into a critical engagement with theorists of the nation such as Fredric Jameson and Partha Chatterjee. Moving beyond cynical deconstructions of the post-colony, the book mounts a reassessment of the post-colonial nation as a site of potential empowerment, as a ‘paradoxical refuge’ in a globalised world. It acts on its own impassioned argument that post-colonial and nation-state studies address substantively issues hitherto raised chiefly within international feminism.

Open Access (free)
Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction
Christina Morin

Chapter four considers the materiality of Irish gothic literature, assessing the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction in the first three decades of the nineteenth century. Focusing on London’s Minerva Press and, in particular, the novels of Regina Maria Roche, this chapter considers the textual placement of these works – their locations within specific material and print contexts – as indicative of the geographical and ideological reach and impact of Irish gothic cultural production in the Romantic period. Through careful close reading of Roche’s novels, this chapter underlines Irish gothic writers’ contributions to a new transnational literary marketplace. Its consideration of the extensive reprint and translation history of Roche’s novels further emphasises the role to be played by Irish gothic fiction in both refining an Irish cultural nationalism informed by transnationalism and contributing to similar processes of nation-building elsewhere over the course of the nineteenth century.

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Cardboard publishers in Latin America
Lucy Bell

Bell’s chapter examines the cardboard publishing (editoriales cartoneras) movement that has spread widely across Latin America since Eloísa Cartonera was founded in Buenos Aires in 2003. Editoriales cartoneras are small, independent publishers who make their books by hand out of recycled cardboard, whose common principles include anti-capitalism, inclusivity and sustainability. Through close readings of the mixed-media collection Catador (Waste picker, 2013) by the São Paulo-based publishing cooperative Dulcinéia Catadora, Bell argues that cardboard publishers offer an implicit and explicit critique of the ‘three pillars’ of sustainability, of ‘full-stomach’ environmentalism. The chapter highlights the way the Brazilian catadores make use of the liminal zone between the human and more-than-human world, not so much to raise the standing of the latter (as with new materialist critics like Stacy Alaimo and Jane Bennett), nor to reflect negatively on social exclusion in the modern capitalist world (as in Zygmunt Bauman’s Wasted Lives), but rather to sustain themselves and (re)generate their collective identities through the regeneration of materials

in Literature and sustainability