Open Access (free)
James Baldwin and the "Closeted-ness" of American Power
David Jones

This article reads the work of James Baldwin in dialogue with that of Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. Taking its cue from Baldwin’s claim that Americans “live […] with something in [their] closet” that they “pretend […] is not there,” it explores his depiction of a United States characterized by the “closeted-ness” of its racial discourse. In doing so, the article draws on Sedgwick’s work concerning how the containment of discourses pertaining to sexuality hinges on the closeting of non-heteronormative sexual practices. Reconceptualizing Sedgwick’s ideas in the context of a black, queer writer like Baldwin, however, problematizes her own insistence on the “historical gay specificity” of the epistemology she traces. To this end, this article does not simply posit a racial counterpart to the homosexual closet. Rather, reflecting Baldwin’s insistence that “the sexual question and the racial question have always been entwined,” I highlight here the interpretive possibilities opened up by intersectional analyses that view race, sexuality, and national identity as coextensive, reciprocal epistemologies.  

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Intimacy, Shame, and the Closet in James Baldwin’s Giovanni’s Room
Monica B. Pearl

This essay’s close interrogation of James Baldwin’s 1956 novel Giovanni’s Room allows us to see one aspect of how sexual shame functions: it shows how shame exposes anxiety not only about the feminizing force of homosexuality, but about how being the object of the gaze is feminizing—and therefore shameful. It also shows that the paradigm of the closet is not the metaphor of privacy and enclosure on one hand and openness and liberation on the other that it is commonly thought to be, but instead is a site of illusory control over whether one is available to be seen and therefore humiliated by being feminized. Further, the essay reveals the paradox of denial, where one must first know the thing that is at the same time being disavowed or denied. The narrative requirements of fictions such as Giovanni’s Room demonstrate this, as it requires that the narrator both know, in order to narrate, and not know something at the same time.

James Baldwin Review
Catherine Akurut

-Care-for-Sexual-Assault-Survivors-Facilitators-Guide.pdf (accessed 5 September 2018 ). Javaid , A. ( 2016 ), ‘ Feminism, Masculinity and Male Rape: Bringing Male Rape “Out of the Closet” ’, Journal of Gender Studies , 25 : 3 , 283 – 93 . Kapur , A. and Muddell

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Ingmar Bergman, writer
Jan Holmberg

Bergman film vis-à-vis its literary origin. In the case of Hour of the Wolf (1968), however, I stand by this assessment. As a written work, it ranks among Bergman’s greatest; it is also, I submit, nigh on unsuitable for filmic adaptations—by its author or by anyone else. Above all, the text is as much a closet drama as Goethe’s Faust or Ibsen’s Peer Gynt . That is to say, while evidently possible to adapt for the screen or stage, this is first and foremost a work of literature belonging to the dream

in Ingmar Bergman

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
John Marriott

. Egan, on the other hand, represented the new ambulatory observer attempting to capture the dislocating experiences of the metropolis by first-hand observation. Theoretical knowledge – that derived from the closet – was incapable of ascertaining real life; the object of his heroes was to see its quotidian plurality through direct experience of London’s streets and diverse haunts

in The other empire
Open Access (free)
The wall texts of a Percy family manuscript and the Poulys Daunce of St Paul’s Cathedral
Heather Blatt

estates, the manor houses of Leconfield and Wressle. These rooms include a library ceiling, the Earl’s son’s private closet, garden-houses, and a bath – spaces both private and semi-public within the estates. In their subject matter, consistently instructive, the Percy family wall texts touch upon proverbial advice regarding sin, the vanity of human delights, a moralization of musical instruments, a dialogue about youth, and Aristotelian advice to princes. Together, they create a series of didactic works that, as one of the verses painted on the Earl’s son’s closet

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
Aurélie Griffin

closet drama Love’s Victory and her sonnet sequence, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, all deal with love melancholy, and consistently evoke its effects over the characters in terms of an opposition between the ‘external’ and the ‘internal senses’. This distinction was formulated by Thomas Aquinas in the Middle Ages and had an important influence on Renaissance medicine, as I will demonstrate. I will then examine several examples taken first from Urania, then from Love’s Victory, and finally from Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, which best illustrate Wroth’s understanding of love

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Jamie Heckert

of the closet, spoke powerfully about his experiences: ‘The butterfly and chrysalis scenario – that’s what it felt like. Coming from a caterpillar into a butterfly – that’s what it felt like. To be able to just float off. That first summer when I came out, that was what it felt like. It was amazing. Absolutely amazing.’ Relief and freedom were themes that came up in many people’s stories, as was the idea of being able to be one’s true self. Betty said: ‘I don’t think you can ever be yourself until you come out on some level.’ Although most of the participants

in Changing anarchism
The Middlesex Election and the Townshend Duties Crisis
Peter D.G. Thomas

came to a head on 7 July, when Chatham, adhering to his own strict constitutional ideas, had a private audience with the King. He there criticised ministerial policy, for not ignoring Wilkes into political oblivion, and for according too great importance to the East India Company, whose General Courts were behaving like ‘little Parliaments’.55 Afterwards Chatham lingered outside the royal closet, being cool to Grafton and the Bedfords, civil to Conway, and cordial to Granby.56 Thereafter there was no contact between Grafton and Chatham, whose return to the political

in George III