Cognition and markets
Brian J. Loasby
Whether as an explanation of decision making or as a guide to making
decisions, rational choice theory is not very interesting. What is called ‘a
decision’ is merely the logical precipitate of the premisses: everything that
might be regarded as a determinant of choice is already in place, and assumed
to be known (if only as a probability distribution) to the chooser. Within
choice theory agents make no decisions. Now this should not be a source of
complaint, for, paradoxical as it may seem, choice theory is
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Voices: Stepping over the Humanitarian
There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.
who wish to question
the perception of Kant’s enterprise as merely an exercise in legitimating the
natural sciences, and on the other to those who see the need to extend the scope
of epistemology if it is not to founder on the problems that become apparent in
the ﬁrst two Critiques.
Dieter Henrich regards the crux of Kant’s epistemology as the justiﬁcation
of ‘forms of cognition from the form and nature of self-consciousness’ (Henrich
1982 p. 176). The philosophical problem is therefore how the form and nature
of self-consciousness are to be described. Descartes had
Gadamer . . . Truth here is seen in
terms of the capacity of forms of articulation to ‘disclose’ the world.5
For Bernstein, too, ‘art and aesthetics . . . appear as somehow more truthful than
empirical truth . . . more rational than methodological reason, more just than liberal
justice . . . more valuable than principled morality or utility’.6 This is not to argue that
art, and the world disclosed in art, are simply ‘more true’ than truth as correspondence, that ‘art and aesthetics are true while truth-only cognition, say in its realisation
in the natural sciences, is
its deepest sense,27 demanding acknowledgement as an intentional object of perception. Similarly, in
Beckett’s early positing of Beethoven’s ruptured music as a possible
model for his own work, but equally in his increasingly musical,
fragmented language that apparently keeps the underlying silence
at bay, silence is composed in, defined still in terms of the cessation
of sound, objectified for cognition, and evoked only by the act of
listening for it. In these manifestations, as Sontag says, ‘“Silence”
never ceases to imply its opposite and to depend on its
This book is about science in theatre and performance. It explores how theatre and performance engage with emerging scientific themes from artificial intelligence to genetics and climate change. The book covers a wide range of performance forms from the spectacle of the Paralympics Opening Ceremony to Broadway musicals, from experimental contemporary performance and opera to educational theatre, Somali poetic drama and grime videos. It features work by pioneering companies including Gob Squad, Headlong Theatre and Theatre of Debate as well as offering fresh analysis of global blockbusters such as Wicked and Urinetown. The book offers detailed description and analysis of theatre and performance practices as well as broader commentary on the politics of theatre as public engagement with science. It documents important examples of collaborative practice with extended discussion of the Theatre of Debate process developed by Y Touring theatre company, exploration of bilingual theatre-making in East London and an account of how grime MCs and dermatologists ended up making a film together in Birmingham. The interdisciplinary approach draws on contemporary research in theatre and performance studies in combination with key ideas from science studies. It shows how theatre can offer important perspectives on what the philosopher of science Isabelle Stengers has called ‘cosmopolitics’. The book argues that theatre can flatten knowledge hierarchies and hold together different ways of knowing.
This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen
science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth
age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within
environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists
have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging
in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics
has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of
science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living
with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary
contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American
hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental
controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,”
citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding
toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory
environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing,
witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for
seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of
engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of
critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will
also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the
book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues,
as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen
science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors
in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from
emerging scholars and community activists.
following prerequisites must be simultaneously
1 A human need.
2 Such properties as render the thing capable of being brought into a causal
connection with the satisfaction of this need.
3 Human knowledge of this causal connection.
4 Command of the thing sufficient to direct it to the satisfaction of the need
(Menger, 1950, p. 52).
Just focusing on the conditions for adoption, Menger distinguishes four
elements, the first three of which we consider as constitutive for adoption:
motivation, the objective properties of the good, and cognition. Since the
frameworks used to comprehend sensory experience. Dugan also asserts the significance of each individual’s unique embodiment of sensory experience, arguing
that ‘individual bodies sense specific phenomena’ divergently. In order to study
the senses in context, then, we must also interrogate the ‘shifting interface
between individual cognition and shared material environments’, remaining
cautious about flattening individual sensory encounters into undifferentiated
models of collective experience.7
In the same article, Dugan locates a separate, salient concern for sensory