The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler

, workshops, journals, networks, etc. The strong social nature of these creative processes has long been acknowledged and applies to the whole field, including its so-called ‘instrumental’ actors. We all build on the achievements of others in our field and seek contact and exchange with colleagues working on similar material. Most of us are grateful for the opportunity to meet face to face, and we often stress the importance of collegiality and interaction for our own professional development. But not all of us are socially skilled; quite a few dread the pressure that the

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology

there had always been a body of nurses who had little use for the constraints of professional boundaries.24 Where they saw a problem, they dealt with it.25 As medical technologies became c­ ommonplace – s­ uch as the thermometer in the early twentieth century, the sphygmomanometer 132 Negotiating the boundaries of nursing practice 8  Italy. Sisters and RAMC orderlies carrying out a patient. This image reveals the collegiality between different members of the medical team. Such relationships were essential for successful patient care in active service conditions

in Negotiating nursing
James Breasted’s early scientific network

appreciation to the structure of the society in which they emerged’ (2014: 169). We then gain insight into schools of thought, in order to better understand who is participating, who is allowed to share ideas, and how those ideas are shared. Further, we must understand the places in which knowledge is being created. Just as David Livingstone (2003: 13) has argued that ‘scientific knowledge bears the imprint of its location’, I argue so too do collegial relationships. Where science is done depends on who is able to, or allowed to, participate in the creation of knowledge; the

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
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examples of the impact that individual nursing sisters had on their patients’ recovery and the developing collegiality between nursing sisters and medical officers. For a range of these, see, for example, the testimonies of Sister Sheena Kilminster, Ward Sister Isobel Balmain and Sister Monica Baly in Mortimer, Sisters, 190–1, 193–4, 200. 204

in Negotiating nursing
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government of individual bishops. Since the episcopal deputies spoke for the episcopate, the opinion of the majority had to be accepted by all bishops as well as by those conclusion 22/3/04 12:55 pm CONCLUSION Page 219 219 clergy below them in ecclesiastical rank. That assumption was heavily based on an understanding of the episcopate as a united corps within the church, a collegial group with its own unique responsibilities and privileges. Jansenism provided a context and reason for the increasing prominence of the role of bishops as judges of doctrinal questions

in Fathers, pastors and kings

closed field and have not been met with the same kind of friendliness and collegiality that I for one have come to value so greatly. The unevenness of the field's collegiality is certainly changing, and it is my hope that as more students have their interests sparked by Beowulf and other poems, writings, and materials from the period (often through the inspiration of their teachers), they might enter the field under the same or, indeed, better circumstances than I did, warmly and enthusiastically welcomed. This community and its friendliness

in Dating Beowulf
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Timmermanns and Berg, The Gold Standard . 65 S. Harrison and G. Dowswell, ‘Autonomy and bureaucratic accountability in primary care: what English general practitioners say’, Sociology of Health and Illness , 24:2 (2002), 208–26. 66 R. McDonald, K. Checkland, S. Harrison, and A. Coleman, ‘Rethinking collegiality: restratification in English general medical practice 2004–2008’, Social Science and Medicine , 68:7 (2009), 1199–1200. 67 Ibid., pp. 1201–5. 68 R. Flynn, ‘Clinical

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
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this volume, assuming that whatever collegial friendship we have enjoyed is not at an end, but instead in mid-flight. These questions have to do with why you were so concerned to write this letter. That is, what is your motivation as an actor here? I once thought my main question would be, “What does Joshua Dienstag want of Stanley Cavell?,” but I do not think that is really

in Cinema, democracy and perfectionism
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the treatment that they experienced were coloured by anxieties about the correct way young women should behave.132 Nurses experienced the full range of men’s attitudes and behaviour towards them both at home and on active service overseas, from what Telshaw Camp described as ‘certain rapacious military men’133 to the respect and collegiality described by Salter.134 It is not clear whether Telshaw Camp’s comments reflect more on North American servicemen as compared their British counterparts, or whether they simply reflect the differences in men’s attitudes to

in Negotiating nursing