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For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.

Bert Ingelaere

The modernised gacaca court system as it functioned in Rwanda is often referred to in terminology and descriptions as if it were identical, or at least similar, to the traditional conflict resolution mechanism known as the gacaca that has existed in Rwandan society since pre-colonial times. It, therefore, often carries the connotation of a customary and quasi non-judicial mechanism with primarily a restorative objective. The image of palavers under the oldest tree in the village is never far away. However, the relation between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ gacaca

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ). Arendt , H. ( 1990 ), On Revolution ( London : Penguin ). Autesserre , S. ( 2014 ), Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

Zaïre. Le vécu d’une réfugiée rwandaise ( Paris : L’Harmattan ). Verwimp , P. ( 2003 ), ‘ Testing the Double Genocide Thesis for Central and Southern Rwanda ’, Journal of Conflict Resolution , 47 : 4 , 423 – 42 . Verwimp , P. ( 2013 ), Peasants in Power: The Political Economy of Development and Genocide in Rwanda ( Dordrect : Springer ).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

, C. ( 2004 ), ‘ Security and the Democratic Scene: Desecuritization and Emancipation ’, Journal of International Relations and Development , 7 : 4 , 388 – 413 . Autesserre , S. ( 2014 ), Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention ( Cambridge

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The organisation of war-escalation in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990–91
Hannes Grandits and Carolin Leutloff

reform and institutional formation in the process of societal transformation. The leader–followeroriented perspective was chosen to avoid the hypothesis that conflict escalation was inevitable. The analysis of the year before the outbreak of open war in June 1991 is sub24 War-escalation in the Krajina region 1990–91 divided into three sections focusing on distinct phases in the development: first the popularisation and institutionalisation of national front-lines, secondly, the mobilisation for violent conflict resolution and, finally, the importance of the potential of

in Potentials of disorder
Stuart Kaufman

conflict management and conflict resolution can work. Where security interests are constructed in mutually exclusive ways, neo-realist objections to neo-liberal arguments apply. In the hot spots of Eurasia, security dilemmas continue to exist within and between states because states and groups define their security in mutually exclusive ways. In ethnic conflicts such as those in the Balkans, institutional arrangements to manage conflict will remain fragile as long as and to the degree that ethnic attitudes and goals remain mutually hostile. Furthermore, even the fragile

in Limiting institutions?
Olga Vassilieva

Caucasian) level, to resolve common problems (the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus – CMPC); (3) although the idea of the Common Caucasian Home had never been realised in practice, it has been discussed: cooperative organisations had contributed to conflict resolution in the Caucasus. Both processes – the growth of competitive ethno-national movements and the development of different cooperative organisations – reflect a multi-level choice of identity among the population of this region, who ascribe themselves to a local community, to a tribe, to an ethnos

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
A reminder from the present
Pete Shirlow

stress that the BA is not about maintaining the ‘British’ constitutional system. Compromise, it is argued, is based upon the creation of a new and renewable constitutional settlement.9 In reality, however, the ability of the BA to dilute the rationale of ethnosectarianism is over-emphasised.10 In economic and cultural terms, the endorsement of equalisation, as outlined in the BA, is represented as being capable of diluting the logic for ethnically defined labour markets and claims of cultural disaffection. In terms of ‘conflict resolution’, the aim of the BA is to

in The end of Irish history?
Is the CFSP sui generis?
Jakob C. Øhrgaard

, conflict resolution would come to replace simple bargaining. At least three forms of conflict resolution could be distinguished (Haas 1961 : 367–9; Lindberg 1963 : 11–12). The first, ‘lowest common denominator bargaining’, resembled the style traditionally associated with inter-governmental diplomacy, with the overall outcome determined by the least cooperative state. The two other forms of conflict resolution both involved

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy