For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.
The modernised gacaca court system as it functioned in Rwanda is often referred to in terminology and descriptions as if it were identical, or at least similar, to the traditional conflictresolution mechanism known as the gacaca that has existed in Rwandan society since pre-colonial times. It, therefore, often carries the connotation of a customary and quasi non-judicial mechanism with primarily a restorative objective. The image of palavers under the oldest tree in the village is never far away. However, the relation between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ gacaca
Zaïre. Le vécu d’une réfugiée rwandaise ( Paris : L’Harmattan ).
Verwimp , P. ( 2003 ), ‘ Testing the Double Genocide Thesis for Central and Southern Rwanda ’, Journal of ConflictResolution , 47 : 4 , 423 – 42 .
Verwimp , P. ( 2013 ), Peasants in Power: The Political Economy of Development and Genocide in Rwanda ( Dordrect : Springer ).
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell
and alleviating suffering in a conflict or crisis in relation
to a much wider set of goals – around livelihood protection, governance,
resilience, conflictresolution and others that align with the ‘triple
nexus’ of humanitarian action, development and peacebuilding.
Third, we recognise that the ‘humanitarian community’ is not a
monolithic entity. It consists of different types of groups and movements, often
with contradictory ideas about how the broad goal of saving lives
( 2004 ), ‘ Security and the Democratic
Scene: Desecuritization and Emancipation ’,
Journal of International Relations and Development ,
7 : 4 ,
388 – 413 .
( 2014 ), Peaceland: ConflictResolution and the Everyday
Politics of International Intervention
Oliver P. Richmond, Sandra Pogodda, and Roger Mac Ginty
and Conflict, the
work was particularly interested in the extent to which a commonly
accepted framework for understanding responses to conflict could be
applied to how the EU responds to crises. The conflict response
framework stretches from conflict management to conflictresolution and
to conflict transformation, with conflict management the most
conservative and conflict transformation the most
The organisation of war-escalation in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990–91
Hannes Grandits and Carolin Leutloff
reform and institutional
formation in the process of societal transformation. The leader–followeroriented perspective was chosen to avoid the hypothesis that conﬂict escalation
The analysis of the year before the outbreak of open war in June 1991 is sub24
War-escalation in the Krajina region 1990–91
divided into three sections focusing on distinct phases in the development: ﬁrst
the popularisation and institutionalisation of national front-lines, secondly, the
mobilisation for violent conﬂictresolution and, ﬁnally, the importance of the
management driven to a large extent by external security concerns that
make the EU states’ ambitions of contributing to conflictresolution and transformation hard, if not impossible to achieve. The
main reason for this is that the five paradoxes that permeate these
operations create a lack of local ownership and conflict sensitivity
that leads programming of EU crisis response to become supply-driven and
By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.