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For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.

Bert Ingelaere

The modernised gacaca court system as it functioned in Rwanda is often referred to in terminology and descriptions as if it were identical, or at least similar, to the traditional conflict resolution mechanism known as the gacaca that has existed in Rwandan society since pre-colonial times. It, therefore, often carries the connotation of a customary and quasi non-judicial mechanism with primarily a restorative objective. The image of palavers under the oldest tree in the village is never far away. However, the relation between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ gacaca

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

Zaïre. Le vécu d’une réfugiée rwandaise ( Paris : L’Harmattan ). Verwimp , P. ( 2003 ), ‘ Testing the Double Genocide Thesis for Central and Southern Rwanda ’, Journal of Conflict Resolution , 47 : 4 , 423 – 42 . Verwimp , P. ( 2013 ), Peasants in Power: The Political Economy of Development and Genocide in Rwanda ( Dordrect : Springer ).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ). Arendt , H. ( 1990 ), On Revolution ( London : Penguin ). Autesserre , S. ( 2014 ), Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

and alleviating suffering in a conflict or crisis in relation to a much wider set of goals – around livelihood protection, governance, resilience, conflict resolution and others that align with the ‘triple nexus’ of humanitarian action, development and peacebuilding. Third, we recognise that the ‘humanitarian community’ is not a monolithic entity. It consists of different types of groups and movements, often with contradictory ideas about how the broad goal of saving lives

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

, C. ( 2004 ), ‘ Security and the Democratic Scene: Desecuritization and Emancipation ’, Journal of International Relations and Development , 7 : 4 , 388 – 413 . Autesserre , S. ( 2014 ), Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention ( Cambridge

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A framework for understanding EU crisis response
Oliver P. Richmond, Sandra Pogodda, and Roger Mac Ginty

and Conflict, the work was particularly interested in the extent to which a commonly accepted framework for understanding responses to conflict could be applied to how the EU responds to crises. The conflict response framework stretches from conflict management to conflict resolution and to conflict transformation, with conflict management the most conservative and conflict transformation the most

in The EU and crisis response
The organisation of war-escalation in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990–91
Hannes Grandits and Carolin Leutloff

reform and institutional formation in the process of societal transformation. The leader–followeroriented perspective was chosen to avoid the hypothesis that conflict escalation was inevitable. The analysis of the year before the outbreak of open war in June 1991 is sub24 War-escalation in the Krajina region 1990–91 divided into three sections focusing on distinct phases in the development: first the popularisation and institutionalisation of national front-lines, secondly, the mobilisation for violent conflict resolution and, finally, the importance of the potential of

in Potentials of disorder
Mørten Bøås, Bård Drange, Dlawer Ala'Aldeen, Abdoul Wahab Cissé, and Qayoom Suroush

management driven to a large extent by external security concerns that make the EU states’ ambitions of contributing to conflict resolution and transformation hard, if not impossible to achieve. The main reason for this is that the five paradoxes that permeate these operations create a lack of local ownership and conflict sensitivity that leads programming of EU crisis response to become supply-driven and

in The EU and crisis response

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.