Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 4 27/5/03 11:54 am Page 141 4 The Land constitutions Introduction For almost forty years after the federal Constitution went into effect, little attention was paid to state (Land) constitutions in Germany. Amendments were made on numerous occasions, but these were almost always rather minor changes or technical corrections and did not arouse much controversy. At the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, this changed dramatically for two major reasons. A scandal in SchleswigHolstein in 1987 involving allegations that the prime minister

in The Länder and German federalism
Antonius C. G. M. Robben

Thousands of people died in Rotterdam during the Second World War in more than 300 German and Allied bombardments. Civil defence measures had been taken before the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 and these efforts were intensified during the country’s occupation as Allied bombers attacked Rotterdam’s port, factories, dry docks and oil terminals. Residential neighbourhoods were also hit through imprecise targeting and by misfired flak grenades. Inadequate air raid shelters and people’s reluctance to enter them caused many casualties. The condition of the corpses and their post-mortem treatment was thus co-constituted by the relationship between the victims and their material circumstances. This article concludes that an understanding of the treatment of the dead after war, genocide and mass violence must pay systematic attention to the materiality of death because the condition, collection and handling of human remains is affected by the material means that impacted on the victims.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Ernesto Schwartz-Marin and Arely Cruz-Santiago

The article will present the findings of ethnographic research into the Colombian and Mexican forensic systems, introducing the first citizen-led exhumation project made possible through the cooperation of scholars, forensic specialists and interested citizens in Mexico. The coupling evolution and mutual re-constitution of forensic science will be explored, including new forms of citizenship and nation building projects – all approached as lived experience – in two of Latin America‘s most complex contexts: organised crime and mass death.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Klaus Neumann

same rights as German citizens has slowly taken hold; to use the words of Angela Merkel, who ought to be credited with insisting on this idea even when it was unfashionable, ‘The values and rights of our Basic Law are valid for everyone in this country’ ( Merkel, 2019 ). Once it is accepted that the first line of the German constitution’s Article 1, ‘ Die Würde des Menschen ist unantastbar ’ (‘Human dignity is inviolable’), applies to everyone in Germany, then it makes little sense to deny this right to those outside its borders. An increasing number of Germans

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

system would disintegrate. To be more precise: The constitution of a global empire would always result from the victory of a specific nation state – a state capable of monopolising power to the extent that its rivals disappear. However, if this were to happen, the victorious state would not be able to continue increasing its own power since the mechanism for the accumulation of power – competition – would no longer exist. It is this mechanism that causes the disorderly and uneven, but continuous, expansion of the inter-state system itself

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sophie Roborgh

Syria to a broader world history and global community. Monitoring and Accountability Many of the strategic choices in the constitution of the mechanisms mentioned above, are informed by the objectives the monitors have in mind. Several organisations and scholars highlight the multiple objectives this data has, such as Elamein et al. , who state: It has long been recognised that robust data are crucial to verifying attacks

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

terms of development. Nigeria asked for independence and it was granted. But within a space of six years, the country was engulfed with a series of conflicts that led to the collapse of the constitution and the eventual outbreak of the war. Different people, including African leaders, made efforts to ensure that the crisis did not go out of control by bringing the Eastern Region and the Federal Government of Nigeria to the negotiating table, but those efforts failed. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

Comment noted during this meeting. 6 Declaration made at Rmeilane where the Constitution of Rojava proclaimed in January 2014 becomes the social contract of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, setting up a federal system, which is rejected by the Syrian government. 7 Letter from the emir of ISIL in Qabassin

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor: Peter Burnell

Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Cameron Ross

FAD3 10/17/2002 5:42 PM Page 29 3 Federalism and constitutional asymmetry As Taras notes, ‘Establishing a constitutional framework that sets out the political rules of the game and the institutions that allocate values in society is the most daunting challenge for a new regime’.1 For Maravall and di Tella, two features of constitutionalism are particularly important. First, constitutions seek to define, ‘the future substance as well as the form of politics by placing certain political, social and economic, rights beyond the reach of democratic uncertainty

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia