Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.
effect’ (Gleckman, 1995). Large oil
companies influence domestic climate policy, affect the positions
of states in international climate negotiations, and constitute critical target groups when policies are to be implemented. Against
this backdrop, the identification of conditions determining the
climate strategies chosen by the oil industry will provide knowledge about whether and how corporateresistance to a viable
climate policy can be overcome.
There are essentially two main views regarding the extent to
which large multinational corporations are controllable or
and corporateresistance overcome.
To address the research questions and move towards a better
understanding of factors explaining changes and differences in
corporate climate strategies, we have chosen to focus on three
major oil companies in this study: ExxonMobil, the Shell Group
and Statoil. Crudely put, these companies share the same core aim
of selling as much oil and gas as possible at the highest possible
price and the lowest possible cost within the same global market.
The business opportunities and challenges offered by regulatory
measures to curb GHG
multinational oil companies represent important target groups for mitigating climate change, identifying such conditions will provide
knowledge of whether and how corporateresistance to climate
policy can be overcome. Of particular importance is the extent to
which varying climate strategies are the result of companyspecific factors, or whether they are located in the political
context at national or international levels. Strong empirical
support in the former case will point in the direction of corporations operating beyond the reach of climate policy-makers, while