For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.

polyphony already mentioned.  See William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jnr and Terri Hume Oliver (New York and London: W. W. Norton, ). Susan Ireland’s article ‘Writing at the crossroads: cultural conflict in the work of beur women writers’ first drew my attention to the relevance of Du Bois’s work, and provided an invaluable introduction to many of the main concerns of beur women’s writing generally. See French Review, 68(6) (May 1995), 1022–34.  Homi K. Bhabha, ‘Signs taken for wonders’, in The Location of Culture

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Shérazade and other women in the work of Leïla Sebbar

prisoners visit the barber’s Subversion of the gaze in Sebbar’s fiction  shop (J. H. cherche, pp. –), where viewing themselves in the mirror leads to confession, shame, tears or pride in their newly smart appearance. In Sebbar’s situations, this is no abstract philosophical notion. The interaction of the gaze and the aversion of the eyes often arise in a situation of tension between different values and lifestyles, resulting from cultural conflict between different generations of a migrant family. Thus, while theoretically possible that the character will accept

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
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(Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1924)), C.D. Shaw and H.D. McKay’s ecological theory of social disorganisation ( Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1942)) and the theories of cultural conflict.

in Political concepts

culture in the period was to the cultural intent of such ideas. Toland’s example is both a symptom and a cause of the cultural conflict of the period. Fragments of evidence show how Toland’s participation in an elite sociability was a means for insinuating his ideas into the minds of the great and good. This was most definitely enlightenment from above rather than from below. This offers a different model of ‘Enlightenment’ than the one commonly advanced which still emphasises the intellectual influence of philosophic ideas. The more sophisticated account suggested by

in Republican learning
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Redefining security in the Middle East

traditionally been absent from the field. This shift in analysis from national security to human security (the security of groups and individuals) reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest (refugees, rebellion and revolution), economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical

in Redefining security in the Middle East
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History, legend and memory in John Sayles’ Lone Star

how myths emerged on both sides of the borderline, ‘partaking of influences from both cultures’ and with ‘cultural conflict [seen as] many-layered’. 28 The multi-layered border culture is reflected in and illuminated by the depth of reference that Sayles builds into the genre memory that its audience draw upon to comprehend its rich, complex and unfinished history. Like the action that opens the film

in Memory and popular film
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Women, internal colonization and indigenous peoples

location or a new airstrip, and radar and weather equipment. Two native bands were relocated to the area. 23 G. H. Michie and E. M. Neil, ‘Cultural conflict in the Canadian Arctic’, The Canadian Geographer , 5 (1955), 22–41, at 41. 24 NAC MG28 I 17, 26

in Female imperialism and national identity
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Location the Irish gothic novel

cultural conflict, 1764–1832 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 1; Richard Haslam, ‘Irish gothic’, in Catherine Spooner and Emma McEvoy (eds), The Routledge companion to gothic (London: Routledge, 2007), p. 86. See also E.J. Clery, ‘The genesis of “Gothic” fiction’, in Jerrold E. Hogle (ed.), The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 21. 8 See Franco Moretti, ‘The

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829