ideas of cure and care,
and can offer glimpses of past healthcare practices. Hospital design
evolved in conjunction with scientific development, although it has
continuously been subjected to other influences
too, be they social, economic, religious or other. Historian
Annmarie Adams showed that medical spaces, in addition to
materialising medical theories, were also ‘produced
Despite a concerted international effort in recent decades that has yielded
significant progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS, the disease continues to kill
large numbers of people, especially in certain regions like rural Ndhiwa district in
Homa Bay County, Kenya. Although there is still no definitive cure or vaccine,
UNAIDS has set an ambitious goal of ending the epidemic by 2030, specifically via
its 90-90-90 (treatment cascade) strategy – namely that 90 per cent of
Slave Trade without tracing the
corresponding voyages and reproductive habits of the female Aedes
aegypti , the mosquito responsible for transmitting yellow fever and for
which Africans were conveniently considered immune ( Watts, 1999 : 228–9); nor is it possible to understand the role of
colonial medicine in the ‘Scramble for Africa’ without decrypting later
boasts such as that from the French Governor of Morocco who intended to ‘cure the
diseases that for so long have corrupted this people
anecdotal examples that have been documented –
and there is reason to think that the phenomenon is causing real and extensive harm.
During the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, websites masquerading as news outlets published
false stories about the causes and cures of the disease. In Nigeria, two people died and twenty
were hospitalised after drinking excessive quantities of salt water, which they read would
protect them from the disease ( Neporent, 2014 ). In
the US, multiple websites published false news stories that contained alarmist
functioning of the court system.
See also Stefanowicz (2011) and Ingelaere (2013) .
Interview South Eastern Rwanda, March 2006: peasant, female, Hutu, 46 years old.
On power and legalism in Rwanda see also Thomson and Nagy (2010) ; Thomson (2011) .
Brounéus , K. ( 2008 ), ‘Truth-Telling as Talking Cure ? Insecurity and Retraumatization in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts’ , Security Dialogue , 39 : 1 , 55 – 76 .
Brounéus , K. ( 2010 ), ‘The Trauma of Truth Telling: Effects of
This edited volume offers the first comprehensive historical overview of the Belgian medical field in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Its chapters develop narratives that go beyond traditional representations of medicine in national overviews, which have focused mostly on state–profession interactions. Instead, the chapters bring more complex histories of health, care and citizenship. These new histories explore the relation between medicine and a variety of sociopolitical and cultural views and realities, treating themes such as gender, religion, disability, media, colonialism, education and social activism. The novelty of the book lies in its thorough attention to the (too often little studied) second half of the twentieth century and to the multiplicity of actors, places and media involved in the medical field. In assembling a variety of new scholarship, the book also makes a contribution to ‘decentring’ the European historiography of medicine by adding the perspective of a particular country – Belgium – to the literature.
a structure, function and ideology which is intended to ‘educate’ or
‘cure’ inmates, moving them from invalid categories of ‘negative subject’ into
institutional ideas of ‘normality’ and the ‘ideal subject’. Artistic expression is
often encouraged in this socialisation process and this is professionally justified
through models of ‘art therapy’, ‘art education’ and ‘client-led’ or collaborative
I propose that it is possible to create a further, anarchist,1 model which is
based on the ‘validation’ (rather than stigmatisation) of the (artistic
women last rather than first.’15 If international law is the cause
of violence, then we must go back to international law to find in the system itself
an answer to the challenge: law as the cause and the cure; law that stems from
society and in society finds its nourishment and its improvement. Civil society
has ‘strong incentives to use law … to enhance the legitimacy of [its] claims and
the prospects for realizing [its] interests.’16 Judicial and quasi-judicial bodies have
the enormous responsibility to promote an interpretation that, needless to say,
the analogy once
again when considering postcolonial self-articulation, applying it more
directly under the speciﬁc aspect of the talking cure.
According to Freud, a key symptom of hysteria is the tendency to take metaphor literally or anatomically, as described by or inscribed on the body.5
Putting it another way, the hysteric expresses her condition through converting ‘mind’ to ‘body’, translating her fears and repressions into a language of
body images. As Mary Jacobus in her own adaptation of Freud’s theory points
out: ‘As hysteria produces symptoms, so symptoms
exclusively in Latin America. It is sustained by the myth of drug addiction and
searches for ‘cures’ and ‘treatments’ that belie the fact that it is our everyday conditions of living which is the problem. Different governments, many of which
have actively ignored the plight of millions of those caught up in the Drug War,
such as HIV sufferers, fight the War on Drugs on many fronts. These governments increasingly choose surveillance strategies to police the bodies and minds
of their populations. In the post-11 September 2001 political climate, the