Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

gave meaning to their suffering. These movies coexisted with field reports or travel diaries of humanitarian delegates who documented the horrors in the first person that the charities’ magazines then published on a massive scale. 10 Humanitarian accounts by delegates provided additional data to contested realities, because even the authenticity of news pictures was disputed ( Bulletin de l’UISE , 1922 ). For example, Famine in Russia was distributed with hundreds of still images from the film, used as propaganda tools to freeze-frame the most memorable parts of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book re-examines the campaign experience of British soldiers in Africa during the period 1874–1902—the zenith of the Victorian imperial expansion—and does so from the perspective of the regimental soldier. The book utilises a number of letters and diaries, written by regimental officers and other ranks, to allow soldiers to speak for themselves about their experience of colonial warfare. The sources demonstrate the adaptability of the British army in fighting in different climates, over demanding terrain and against a diverse array of enemies. They also uncover soldiers' responses to army reforms of the era as well as the response to the introduction of new technologies of war.

Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny
Sam Goodman

part of the central narrative of British India and remained so until the end of the Raj in 1947, and, in many cases, beyond it.3 18 Lady amateurs and gentleman professionals Examining how and why the Indian Mutiny remained in the British consciousness in this fashion involves the consideration of a medium perennially associated with the British experience in India, as well as the wider Empire, namely that of the diary or journal. Originating in its recognisable modern form in the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century, a period contemporaneous with the

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

5: Austerity baby I seem not to have made such a good impression when I arrived, at least not on my mother. She started keeping a baby diary on 5 July 1943, just over three months after I was born. Arrived a few days after schedule at 6.10 am Thursday. Very tiny, ugly and thin – folds of skin without any fat. Weighed 6lbs. 4ozs. She improved rapidly however – or maybe I just got more used to her, but even so when we went home (5/4/43) she wasn’t very beautiful. She gained weight very quickly & was soon looking very sweet and lovely – not only my opinion

in Austerity baby
Jonathan Atkin

its usual ‘vulgar effect’ into this peaceful landscape of corn and poppies and wished for the end of the war when, ‘the true business of life will begin – to teach men the beauty of the hill-sides’. For the present, however, his love of nature and the contrast it forced upon him, ‘gives me a fierce feeling of hatred of the present bondage that is hardly to be borne – and there are times on parade when it seems impossible to do what one is told’.2 Reporter W. Beach Thomas echoed Adams’s horror of the ugliness of the war in a diary entry, written after five months of

in A war of individuals
Wharton,Woolf and the nature of Modernism
Katherine Joslin

Wharton signals Woolf ’s own anxiety over a rival’s genius. And we might simply leave the transatlantic quarrel there: Edith Wharton and Virginia Woolf, perhaps the two most articulate and influential literary women of the modern period, gossiping with friends. ‘Embattled tendencies’: Wharton and Woolf 203 The two women apparently never met, never talked directly across the Atlantic or, indeed, across the English Channel. We might leave them if not for the insistent sound of their voices, wrangling in letters, diaries, essays, even in novels, disrupting our view of

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)
James E. Connolly

about this subterfuge and closed their eyes’.64 Similarly, mayors or members of municipalities or provisioning committees were also believed to have been involved in commercial misconduct: the Mayors of Valenciennes, Hautmont, the Adjunct Mayor of Saint-​Amand and a member of the Comité de Ravitaillement from Lille were all denounced for this in repatriation testimony.65 Conversely, diaries are largely silent on commercial misconduct, with some exceptions. Hirsch recorded in January 1917 that the Allied blockade meant that Germans in Maubeuge had started to buy bread

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
The auteur as an ekphrastic ghost
Maaret Koskinen

I just want to cry. Could it be that something else is more important, could it be that there is no real course of events, could it be that this whole thing is a study , is there something that wants to be said through this face, these hands, this voice[?] (Diary entry dated Thursday 22 May 1980) 8 ‘Could it be that there is no real course of events?’ Indeed, it seems as though the story about Victoria was unsure of its own nature. That is, it seemed to want to

in Ingmar Bergman
Living with the enemy in First World War France

This study considers the ways in which locals of the occupied Nord responded to and understood their situation across four years of German domination, focusing in particular on key behaviours adopted by locals, and the way in which such conduct was perceived. Behaviours examined include forms of complicity, misconduct, disunity, criminality, and resistance. This local case study calls into question overly-patriotic readings of this experience, and suggests a new conceptual vocabulary to help understand certain civilian behaviours under military occupation.

Drawing on extensive primary documentation – from diaries and letters to posters and police reports – this book proposes that a dominant ‘occupied culture’ existed among locals. This was a moral-patriotic framework, born of both pre-war socio-cultural norms and daily interaction with the enemy, that guided conduct and was especially concerned with what was considered acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Those who breached the limits of this occupied culture faced criticism and sometimes punishment. This study attempts to disentangle perceptions and reality, but also argues that the clear beliefs and expectations of the occupied French comprise a fascinating subject of study in their own right. They provide an insight into national and local identity, and especially the way in which locals understood their role within the wider conflict.

This book will be useful to undergraduates, post-graduates and academics interested in an understudied aspect of the history of modern France, the First World War, and military occupations.

Open Access (free)
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.