Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
gave meaning to their suffering. These movies coexisted with field reports or travel diaries of humanitarian delegates who documented the horrors in the first person that the charities’ magazines then published on a massive scale. 10 Humanitarian accounts by delegates provided additional data to contested realities, because even the authenticity of news pictures was disputed ( Bulletin de l’UISE , 1922 ). For example, Famine in Russia was distributed with hundreds of still images from the film, used as propaganda tools to freeze-frame the most memorable parts of
This book re-examines the campaign experience of British soldiers in Africa during the period 1874–1902—the zenith of the Victorian imperial expansion—and does so from the perspective of the regimental soldier. The book utilises a number of letters and diaries, written by regimental officers and other ranks, to allow soldiers to speak for themselves about their experience of colonial warfare. The sources demonstrate the adaptability of the British army in fighting in different climates, over demanding terrain and against a diverse array of enemies. They also uncover soldiers' responses to army reforms of the era as well as the response to the introduction of new technologies of war.
part of the central narrative of
British India and remained so until the end of the Raj in 1947, and, in
many cases, beyond it.3
Lady amateurs and gentleman professionals
Examining how and why the Indian Mutiny remained in the British
consciousness in this fashion involves the consideration of a medium
perennially associated with the British experience in India, as well as
the wider Empire, namely that of the diary or journal. Originating
in its recognisable modern form in the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century, a period contemporaneous with the
5: Austerity baby
I seem not to have made such a good impression when I arrived, at
least not on my mother. She started keeping a baby diary on 5 July
1943, just over three months after I was born.
Arrived a few days after schedule at 6.10 am Thursday. Very tiny, ugly
and thin – folds of skin without any fat. Weighed 6lbs. 4ozs. She
improved rapidly however – or maybe I just got more used to her,
but even so when we went home (5/4/43) she wasn’t very beautiful.
She gained weight very quickly & was soon looking very sweet
and lovely – not only my opinion
its usual ‘vulgar effect’ into this peaceful landscape of corn and poppies
and wished for the end of the war when, ‘the true business of life will begin – to
teach men the beauty of the hill-sides’. For the present, however, his love of
nature and the contrast it forced upon him, ‘gives me a fierce feeling of hatred
of the present bondage that is hardly to be borne – and there are times on
parade when it seems impossible to do what one is told’.2
Reporter W. Beach Thomas echoed Adams’s horror of the ugliness of the
war in a diary entry, written after five months of
Woolf ’s own anxiety over a rival’s genius.
And we might simply leave the transatlantic quarrel there: Edith
Wharton and Virginia Woolf, perhaps the two most articulate and
inﬂuential literary women of the modern period, gossiping with friends.
‘Embattled tendencies’: Wharton and Woolf
The two women apparently never met, never talked directly across the
Atlantic or, indeed, across the English Channel. We might leave them if
not for the insistent sound of their voices, wrangling in letters, diaries,
essays, even in novels, disrupting our view of
about this subterfuge and closed their
eyes’.64 Similarly, mayors or members of municipalities or provisioning
committees were also believed to have been involved in commercial misconduct: the Mayors of Valenciennes, Hautmont, the Adjunct Mayor of
Saint-Amand and a member of the Comité de Ravitaillement from Lille
were all denounced for this in repatriation testimony.65
Conversely, diaries are largely silent on commercial misconduct,
with some exceptions. Hirsch recorded in January 1917 that the Allied
blockade meant that Germans in Maubeuge had started to buy bread
I just want to cry. Could it be
that something else is more important, could it be that
there is no real course of events, could it be that this whole
thing is a study , is there something that wants to be
said through this face, these hands, this voice[?]
(Diary entry dated Thursday 22 May 1980) 8
it be that there is no real course of events?’ Indeed, it seems
as though the story about Victoria was unsure of its own nature. That
is, it seemed to want to
This study considers the ways in which locals of the occupied Nord responded to and understood their situation across four years of German domination, focusing in particular on key behaviours adopted by locals, and the way in which such conduct was perceived. Behaviours examined include forms of complicity, misconduct, disunity, criminality, and resistance. This local case study calls into question overly-patriotic readings of this experience, and suggests a new conceptual vocabulary to help understand certain civilian behaviours under military occupation. Drawing on extensive primary documentation – from diaries and letters to posters and police reports – this book proposes that a dominant ‘occupied culture’ existed among locals. This was a moral-patriotic framework, born of both pre-war socio-cultural norms and daily interaction with the enemy, that guided conduct and was especially concerned with what was considered acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Those who breached the limits of this occupied culture faced criticism and sometimes punishment. This study attempts to disentangle perceptions and reality, but also argues that the clear beliefs and expectations of the occupied French comprise a fascinating subject of study in their own right. They provide an insight into national and local identity, and especially the way in which locals understood their role within the wider conflict. This book will be useful to undergraduates, post-graduates and academics interested in an understudied aspect of the history of modern France, the First World War, and military occupations.
Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.