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Labour and cultural change
Author: Steven Fielding

This book is the first in the new series The Labour Governments 1964–70 and concentrates on Britain's domestic policy during Harold Wilson's tenure as Prime Minister. It deals, in particular, with how the Labour government and Labour party as a whole tried to come to terms with the 1960's cultural revolution. The book is grounded in original research, takes account of responses from Labour's grass roots and from Wilson's ministerial colleagues, and constructs a total history of the party at this critical moment in history. It situates Labour in its wider cultural context and focuses on how the party approached issues such as the apparent transformation of the class structure, the changing place of women in society, rising immigration, the widening generation gap, and increasing calls for direct participation in politics. Together with the other volumes in the series, on international policy and economic policy, the book provides an insight into the development of Britain under Harold Wilson's government.

Rousseau as a constitutionalist
Mads Qvortrup

legislation by the people. Rousseau did perhaps become more concerned with practical politics in his later years, yet his views regarding this remained the same.12 Direct democracy and checks and balances Rousseau is often described as an archetypal theorist of direct participation. Carole Pateman, an often-quoted authority on the subject, writes: ‘The central function of participation in Rousseau’s theory is an educative one, using the term in the widest sense. Rousseau’s ideal system is designed to develop responsible, individual social and political action through the

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

idealised state as a public service and providing social well-being is counterposed to an experience of the state as dominating, coercive and extractive. Agendas of political participation, development and peace are inextricably attached to it. Democracy or ‘démon-cracy’25 Against a practice of democracy that is almost exclusively premised on the organisation of presidential and national elections, democracy for non-elites is premised on direct participation in decision-making processes. In a workshop for secondary school students on ‘participatory governance’ organised

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

can control the people. Hitler’s oratorical powers facilitated his seizure of power in Germany, but also helped him as leader to persuade, cajole and inspire the German people. Ancient Athenian democracy involved the direct participation of all citizens in government and is often seen as the inspiration for modern democracies. Citizenship itself, though, was very restricted. No women, slaves or foreigners could take part, or

in Understanding political ideas and movements
From theory to advocacy
Andrea Boggio and Cesare P. R. Romano

the right to science. International organisations at the regional level also offer opportunities for participation in their activities. In these forums, political mobilisation takes both the form of lobbying and direct participation in working groups and debates. In Europe, science and human rights advocates can work with members of the European Parliament and those of the Parliamentary Assembly 172 Freedom of science and the need for regulation of the Council of Europe to facilitate discussions and present policy proposals promoting the right to science. In the

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
Michael McConnell

Germans termed Volkskrieg, or ‘people’s war’, which involved the direct participation of the entire civilian population. Due to the manner in which it was conducted, Volkskrieg was interpreted by German military planners as barbaric. The Russian Civil War and the social engineering projects which followed also buttressed stereotypes of the Soviets as fanatics and Eastern peoples in general as desensitized to violence, able to respond only to brutal forms of governance. These tropes were later enhanced by the racial dogma of the Nazi regime after 1933, which biologized

in Destruction and human remains
Paul Henley

. Around this same time, Channel 4 also supported another major project that was very different in authorial terms, but which could also be said to possess ethnographic qualities on account of the way in which it was made – despite not involving the direct participation of an academic anthropologist. This was Baka: People of the Rainforest , first broadcast in 1987. The ethnographic status of this film is perhaps more debatable than Caught in a Web : be that as it may, it

in Beyond observation
A managerial perspective
Peter McCullen and Colin Harris

ownership of the work process (direct participation) and is clearly linked 44 to the development of the Hawthorne experiments in the 1930s and the development into the neo-human relations school. 45 O’Reilly argues that participatory systems, like empowerment in TQM, through offering choices in the work process, develop a sense of responsibility in individual workers. This is

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
The 1970 general election
Steven Fielding

extent the party’s desire to increase more direct participation in decision-making. Although participation was still considered a marginal issue by many, it had nonetheless started to shuffle in from the wings. The creation of the Crowther-Hunt Commission meant constitutional change remained alive and if the motives of Cabinet ministers like Callaghan for establishing this body can be questioned, there were, it should be recalled, others who hoped it would lead to a federal Britain. Conclusion This work has been underpinned by the assumption that Labour’s generally

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Cameron Ross

debt offsets, have been used as primary tools for the conduct of relatively independent fiscal policies at the subnational level’. These include the use of ‘barter chains’, ‘creative book keeping’ and ‘individualised tax treatment’. Moreover, regional administrations will often have very cosy relations with the financial institutions in their territories, including direct participation in their capital, indirect participation through affiliated companies, control of utilities, control of various inspections empowered to administer penalties and fines, close ties with

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia