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2543Chap5 16/7/03 9:58 am Page 104 5 The Domestic Politics model Company-specific differences between ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil can shed light on differences in their climate strategies to only a limited extent. Chapter 4 revealed that company-specific features with implications for climate strategies are marked more by similarities than differences. The CA model is also incapable of explaining changes in corporate climate strategies. We explore whether the national political contexts in which the companies operate prove more capable of explaining

in Climate change and the oil industry
Interpreting change

This book focuses on the Western difficulties in interpreting Russia. It begins with by reflecting on some of the problems that are set in the foundations of Russia's post-Cold War relationship with the West. The book points to problems that emerge from linguistic and historical 'interpretation'. It looks at the impact of Russia's decline as a political priority for the West since the end of the Cold War and the practical impact this has had. It then reflects on the rising influence, especially, but not only, in public policy and media circles, of 'transitionology' as the main lens through which developments in Russia were interpreted. The book then examines the evolution of the West's relationship with Russia since the end of the Cold War, focusing particularly on the NATO-Russia relationship. It focuses on the chronological development of relations and the emergence of strategic dissonance from 2003. The book also looks at Russian domestic politics, particularly the Western belief in and search for a particular kind of change in Russia, a transition to democracy. It continues the exploration of domestic politics, but turns to address the theme of 'Putinology', the focus on Putin as the central figure in Russian politics.

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reputation, and high organisational learning capacity would lead to a proactive strategy on climate change. Likewise, we assumed that the converse – i.e. high environmental risk, no negative public scrutiny, and a low capacity for organisational learning – would lead to a reactive climate strategy. The second perspective – the Domestic Politics (DP) model – postulates that differences in climate strategy can mainly be explained by differences in the national political contexts of the companies rather than in the companies themselves. This model is based on theories of

in Climate change and the oil industry
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One way to Europeanisation

high level of attention, since this sector was one of the most affected by integration. Externally, 2444Ch15 3/12/02 358 2:06 pm Page 358 Member States and the European Union the Portuguese priorities were directed towards Africa and Latin America.8 The new policies introduced by the TEU forced the government to adjust its own priorities: EMU and the participation in the single currency turned into one of the top Portuguese priorities. The domestic political changes also affected the ranking of priorities. The socialist party won the 1995 general elections.9

in Fifteen into one?
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’, he wrote, ‘It is unable – and has, apparently, no great wish – to picture the details of the postwar world. It speculates relatively little about the end of the war.’2 But official inertia did not prevent reconstruction from becoming an issue of debate, none the less. Beginning as a low profile discourse, mainly in intellectual and academic circles, reconstruction dramatically took centre stage with the publication of the Beveridge Report in December 1942, thereafter becoming the leading issue in domestic politics and potentially a significant influence on popular

in Half the battle

region afflicted with irredentism, domestic politics encourages nationalist outbidding. Revolution in states such as Egypt and Iran has brought leaders to power who seek to export their ideology; in mobilising new social forces, it has tended to strengthen certain states and upset power balances. Demographic, ideological or political expansionist impulses have been built into the very fabric of some states, as is arguably so of Israel (a settler state) and Iraq (an artificial state), which, between them, have launched five wars against their neighbours. Weak or

in The international politics of the Middle East
Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.

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Another awkward partner?

2444Ch16 3/12/02 16 2:06 pm Page 369 Karl Magnus Johansson Sweden: another awkward partner? Introduction: reluctant yet faithful Scholars of the European Union must lift the lid off the ‘black box’ of domestic politics to understand the behaviour of Member States in the integration processes. In this chapter, we will move inside the Swedish polity by analysing domestic constraints and institutional characteristics. The overarching aim is to capture the fundamentals of Sweden as an EU member, thereby identifying the primary actors involved in the

in Fifteen into one?
Why China survived the financial crisis

’s ability to withstand the crisis, must be understood within the context of its domestic political economy. While it was arguably in China’s interest not to devalue the RMB during the height of crisis, there are forces at work within the economy that may force China to rethink this strategy in the future. The economy: underlying strengths Never in recorded history has an economy grown so rapidly and as extensively as that of post-Mao China. The Third Plenum of the Eleventh Communist Party Congress in December 1978 saw the rise of the late Deng Xiaoping as the paramount

in The Asian financial crisis
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of the poor within the imperial formation, and provides a more satisfactory explanation of their chronology and nature than those focusing exclusively on domestic politics and social policy. In the following I wish to explore the workings of this symbolic process. To understand the active construction of racial identities in this period, we need to go beyond the convention of identifying

in The other empire