fascinated by Russia’s bells: ‘It was said in those days that there
were 40 times 40 churches and holy shrines in Moscow, and so you
can imagine [on holy days] 40 times 40 bells rang out from all these
great and small beautiful architectural edifices. And the whole city
was resounding with the music of bells.’23 Hearing Farmborough’s
voice, as she recounts her earlyexperiences of Kiev and Moscow, a
listener cannot help but be struck by her deep sense of nostalgia. With
the hindsight of sixty years, and speaking in a world still fractured
by the cold war, in which Eastern
‘phantasies’ in relation to
their earlyexperiences that led them to repress or divert internal
forces and drives, which could manifest problems in later life.
Isaacs claimed that from the moment an infant experienced an
instinctual urge, he also had the capacity to think about that urge
and to imagine the direction it may take. If an instinctual drive
was frustrated, then the infant
Balance, malleability and anthropology: historical contexts
the above-mentioned discussions of adaptation and evolution, to the varied concepts of psychoanalysis, where earlyexperiences are said to mould future character and pathology to an enormous extent. This emerges very clearly in child guidance.
It is also evident in some strands of sociology – even as part of those ideas that deploy concepts of culture as a measure of civilisation.
What I am arguing instead, is that an
brief account of Kate Luard’s
earlyexperiences of the First World War, see: Christine E. Hallett, Veiled
Warriors: Allied Nurses of the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2014): Chapter 1.
25 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 52–3. On nursing work on hospital trains,
see: Hallett, Veiled Warriors: Chapter 1.
26 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 88–90.
27 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 206.
28 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 212.
29 Vera Brittain, Testament of Youth: An Autobiographical Study of the Years
1900–1925 (London: Virago Press, 2004
many illnesses and
injuries. If this was aa late as 1944, it is not clear why chemists were still
producing crude penicillin. Peake’s oral history is not particularly clear
throughout in terms of timelines, so she could have been referring to earlierexperiences in the desert. Kevin Brown identifies that the early researchers
in Oxford did not have properly designed culture dishes either and that the
team obtained biscuit tins, as well as petrol tins and bedpans, in order to
grow the mould. Brown, Fighting Fit, loc. 3546.
157 Anonymous, ‘Penicillin in the field
obligations of health in the twentieth century’, in Dorothy Porter,
Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to
Modern Times (London: Routledge, 1999); Jane Brooks, Chapter 3, ‘Nursing
the nation’, in Jane Brooks, ‘“Visiting rights only”: The earlyexperience of
nurses in higher education, 1918–1960’ [unpublished PhD thesis] (London:
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2005).
74 Arthur Salusbury MacNalty, ‘Medical research’, in Arthur Salusbury
MacNalty and W. Franklin Mellor (eds), Medical Services in War: The