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An interdisciplinary approach to the study of demand and its role in innovation

This book brings together a range of sociologists and economists to study the role of demand and consumption in the innovative process. Starting with a broad conceptual overview of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption, it goes on to offer different approaches to the economics of demand and innovation through an evolutionary framework, before reviewing how consumption fits into evolutionary models of economic development. The book then looks at food consumption as an example of innovation by demand, including an examination of the dynamic nature of socially constituted consumption routines. It includes an analysis of how African Americans use consumption to express collective identity and discusses the involvement of consumers in innovation, focusing on how consumer needs may be incorporated in the design of high-tech products. It also argues for the need to build an economic sociology of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features.

4 Variety, growth and demand Pier Paolo Saviotti Modern economies contain a large number of entities (products, services, methods of production, competences, individual and organisational actors, institutions), which are qualitatively novel and different with respect to those existing in previous economic systems. In other words, the composition of the economic system has changed enormously during economic development. The observation that there has been a great deal of qualitative change in economic development would probably not be denied by any economist

in Innovation by demand

innovation through an evolutionary framework. In previous papers, Paolo Saviotti has studied the relation between the composition of the economic system and its capacity to generate long-run economic development. Saviotti has concluded that an important concept is ‘variety growth’, which is a requirement for the continuation of long-run economic development and leads to the creation of new sectors. The role that variety can play in economic development has important implications for economic theory, including the theory of demand. Some of the assumptions that are made in

in Innovation by demand

making a tangible contribution to the economic development of the colonies. Officials complained that very few of the products developed through research were in commercial production. Colonial product research undertaken in Britain was subsequently reformulated with a focus on the analysis and assessment of tropical commodities in response to queries by business or governments. Most of the programmes of work previously done in university departments across Britain were terminated and investigation was instead concentrated under one roof in a new Colonial Products

in Science at the end of empire
What contribution to regional security?

European and world economies. With its international secretariat in Istanbul, the BSEC provided an agency for opening communication links among neighbouring, newly established states and for upgrading their international stature, particularly vis-à-vis the EU. The architects of the BSEC identified economic development as the main pillar of regional security and promoted three objectives: cooperation rather than conflict, regionalism as a step towards global integration, and avoidance of new divisions in Europe. The BSEC’s agenda has mainly restricted itself to functional

in Limiting institutions?

riverine water is the environmental issue most liable to lead to war in the region, such an outcome remains improbable for a number of reasons, some related to water and others not. Water’s security implications principally fall within the wider conceptualisation of security – as an indirect or contributory cause to instability. Poor water management affects diplomatic relations, economic development, public health and access to land. Thus, while interstate war directly associated with water disputes is not likely to take place in the near future, it is expedient to

in Limiting institutions?

movement stood on the threshold of new opportunities as membership numbers reached a high watermark at this time. The establishment of a new general-purpose society that carried out a more diverse trade provided a cause for some cheer among the movement's leaders. The fact that Dáil Eireann's Democratic Programme made a commitment to Irish industrial development also offered an opportunity to advance the IAOS's influence over a potential government in waiting. Concerted efforts to bring about measurements that promoted economic development despite the Dáil's limited

in Civilising rural Ireland
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A multidisciplinary perspective

, 1998) are seen as the unit of selection. As Witt (1997a, 2000) emphasises, it is wants which have evolved and been selected for during human phylogeny. Thus selection operates in a more indirect way on economic development: The starting point for social evolution is ... provided by those patterned features of human behaviour, thinking and feeling that remain unaffected by processes of social evolution. The theory of social evolution, unlike the theory of biological evolution, can start with these givens. (Schlicht, 1997, p. 731) In contrast to neoclassical theory

in Innovation by demand

on how the co-operative movement asserted itself in the southern jurisdiction. Partition of Ireland also saw a partition of the movement and the Ulster Agricultural Organisation Society (UAOS) represented the northern societies after 1922. However, the UAOS proved to be a less influential organisation in governmental terms, partly owing to the presence of a strong urban, industrial sector in Northern Ireland. Agriculture remained the main engine of economic development in the Free State, which provided greater scope for the IAOS to exert influence. The

in Civilising rural Ireland

as a deep-seated political change comparable to the administrative transformations in Prussia after 1870. Rather, they took the form of adjustments of the administrative organization to long-ignored changes in social and economic developments.8 Today the sixteen Länder are divided between thirteen territorial states (Flächenstaaten) and three city states (by size of population: Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen). There are four large territorial states (by size of population: North-Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, and Lower Saxony), eight medium-sized states

in The Länder and German federalism