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The case of colonial India and Africa
C. A. Bayly

Bayly 02_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:17 Page 39 2 Indigenous and colonial origins of comparative economic development: the case of colonial India and Africa C.A. Bayly 1 In recent years the debate about comparative economic development has broadened out to take account of work in other major human sciences, particularly anthropology, sociology, philosophy and history. Development specialists have become increasingly aware of the need to understand the history and ideologies of the societies within which they work in order to encourage better reactions to their

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
An interdisciplinary approach to the study of demand and its role in innovation

This book brings together a range of sociologists and economists to study the role of demand and consumption in the innovative process. Starting with a broad conceptual overview of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption, it goes on to offer different approaches to the economics of demand and innovation through an evolutionary framework, before reviewing how consumption fits into evolutionary models of economic development. The book then looks at food consumption as an example of innovation by demand, including an examination of the dynamic nature of socially constituted consumption routines. It includes an analysis of how African Americans use consumption to express collective identity and discusses the involvement of consumers in innovation, focusing on how consumer needs may be incorporated in the design of high-tech products. It also argues for the need to build an economic sociology of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features.

Pier Paolo Saviotti

4 Variety, growth and demand Pier Paolo Saviotti Modern economies contain a large number of entities (products, services, methods of production, competences, individual and organisational actors, institutions), which are qualitatively novel and different with respect to those existing in previous economic systems. In other words, the composition of the economic system has changed enormously during economic development. The observation that there has been a great deal of qualitative change in economic development would probably not be denied by any economist

in Innovation by demand
A necessary dialogue

The substantive and methodological contributions of professional historians to development policy debates was marginal, whether because of the dominance of economists or the inability of historians to contribute. There are broadly three ways in which history matters for development policy. These include insistence on the methodological principles of respect for context, process and difference; history is a resource of critical and reflective self-awareness about the nature of the discipline of development itself; and history brings a particular kind of perspective to development problems . After establishing the key issues, this book explores the broad theme of the institutional origins of economic development, focusing on the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. It demonstrates that scholarship on the origins of industrialisation in England in the late eighteenth century suggests a gestation reaching back to a period during which a series of social institutional innovations were pioneered and extended to most citizens of England. The book examines a paradox in China where an emphasis on human welfare characterized the rule of the eighteenth-century Qing dynasty, and has been demonstrated in modern-day China's emphasis on health and education. It provides a discussion on the history of the relationship between ideology and policy in public health, sanitation in India's modern history and the poor health of Native Americans. The book unpacks the origins of public education, with a focus on the emergency of mass literacy in Victorian England and excavates the processes by which colonial education was indigenized throughout South-East Asia.

Andrew McMeekin, Ken Green, Mark Tomlinson and Vivien Walsh

innovation through an evolutionary framework. In previous papers, Paolo Saviotti has studied the relation between the composition of the economic system and its capacity to generate long-run economic development. Saviotti has concluded that an important concept is ‘variety growth’, which is a requirement for the continuation of long-run economic development and leads to the creation of new sectors. The role that variety can play in economic development has important implications for economic theory, including the theory of demand. Some of the assumptions that are made in

in Innovation by demand
Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter and Vijayendra Rao

matters for development policy Section three focuses on the different theoretical and methodological underpinnings of contemporary historical scholarship as it pertains to comparative economic development, arguing that in order for non-historians to engage more substantively and faithfully with the discipline of history, they must make a sustained effort both to understand historiography and appreciate anew the limits of their own discipline’s methodological assumptions. Being a historian is not just a matter of ‘knowing more’ about a particular time, place or issue

in History, historians and development policy
Sabine Clarke

making a tangible contribution to the economic development of the colonies. Officials complained that very few of the products developed through research were in commercial production. Colonial product research undertaken in Britain was subsequently reformulated with a focus on the analysis and assessment of tropical commodities in response to queries by business or governments. Most of the programmes of work previously done in university departments across Britain were terminated and investigation was instead concentrated under one roof in a new Colonial Products

in Science at the end of empire
What contribution to regional security?
Panagiota Manoli

European and world economies. With its international secretariat in Istanbul, the BSEC provided an agency for opening communication links among neighbouring, newly established states and for upgrading their international stature, particularly vis-à-vis the EU. The architects of the BSEC identified economic development as the main pillar of regional security and promoted three objectives: cooperation rather than conflict, regionalism as a step towards global integration, and avoidance of new divisions in Europe. The BSEC’s agenda has mainly restricted itself to functional

in Limiting institutions?
Stuart Horsman

riverine water is the environmental issue most liable to lead to war in the region, such an outcome remains improbable for a number of reasons, some related to water and others not. Water’s security implications principally fall within the wider conceptualisation of security – as an indirect or contributory cause to instability. Poor water management affects diplomatic relations, economic development, public health and access to land. Thus, while interstate war directly associated with water disputes is not likely to take place in the near future, it is expedient to

in Limiting institutions?
Patrick Doyle

movement stood on the threshold of new opportunities as membership numbers reached a high watermark at this time. The establishment of a new general-purpose society that carried out a more diverse trade provided a cause for some cheer among the movement's leaders. The fact that Dáil Eireann's Democratic Programme made a commitment to Irish industrial development also offered an opportunity to advance the IAOS's influence over a potential government in waiting. Concerted efforts to bring about measurements that promoted economic development despite the Dáil's limited

in Civilising rural Ireland