The political economy of French social
democratic economicpolicy autonomy
1997–2002: credibility, dirigisme and
Introduction: the crisis of social democracy
The U-turn of French Socialism in 1983 saw a retreat from egalitarian
redistribution, full employment and social justice as the priorities of economicpolicy. A prolonged period of ideological and programmatic flux
ensued. The manifest failure of a decade of Socialist Government to make
any impression on the soaring unemployment figures was devastating.
This, acting in tandem with
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, historians of England pioneered a series of new approaches to the history of economic policy. Commerce, finance and statecraft charts the development of these forms of writing and explores the role they played in the period's economic, political and historiographical thought. Through doing so, the book makes a significant intervention in the study of historiography, and provides an original account of early-modern and Enlightenment history. A broad selection of historical writing is discussed, ranging from the work of Francis Bacon and William Camden in the Jacobean era, through a series of accounts shaped by the English Civil War and the party-political conflicts that followed it, to the eighteenth-century's major account of British history: David Hume's History of England. Particular attention is paid to the historiographical context in which historians worked and the various ways they copied, adapted and contested one another's narratives. Such an approach enables the study to demonstrate that historical writing was the site of a wide-ranging, politically charged debate concerning the relationship that existed – and should have existed – between government and commerce at various moments in England’s past.
The Conservative Party's survival as a significant political force was now open to serious question for the first time since the crisis over the Corn Laws. The Labour Party has commanded a fairly consistent level of attention, whether in office or in opposition. But it seems that the Conservatives are fated to be regarded either as unavoidable or irrelevant. This book presents an analysis that suggests that the party leader plays a less important role in Conservative recoveries than a distinctive policy programme and an effective party organization. It examines the Conservative position on a series of key issues, highlighting the difficult dilemmas which confronted the party after 1997, notably on economic policy. New Labour's acceptance of much of the main thrust of Thatcherite economic policy threw the Conservatives off balance. The pragmatism of this new position and the 'In Europe, not run by Europe' platform masked a significant move towards Euro-skepticism. The book also traces how the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Parties adapted to the creation of the Scottish Parliament, exploring the re-organisation of the Scottish party, its electoral fortunes and political prospects in the new Scottish politics. It examines issues of identity and nationhood in Conservative politics in the 1997-2001 period, focusing on the 'English Question' and the politics of 'race'. The predictable results of the Conservatives' failure to develop an attractive, consistent narrative are then analysed. Right-wing populist parties with charismatic leaders enjoyed some electoral success under the proportional representation systems in 2002.
This book seeks to review the state of political issues early in the twenty-first century, when New Labour is in its second term of office. As part of the updating process it became necessary to choose which political issues are important. The book includes the main issues which appear in current Advanced Level Politics syllabuses. In the case of Edexcel, which offers a specific political issues option in its A2 specification, all the specified issues have been included. The book deals with the process of constitutional and political change which are issues in themselves. It also includes material on constitutional reform (incorporating the recent development of human rights in Britain), and devolution. The book includes the global recession and other recent political developments and looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945. It examines the key issues of British politics today: economic policy, the Welfare State, law and order, environment policy, Northern Ireland, issues concerning women, European integration and the European Union, and the impact of the European Union on Britain. The book also deals with the European Union and Britain's relationship to it. Finally, it must be emphasised that Britain's relationship to the European Union is in itself a political issue which has fundamentally changed the party system.
➤ The post-war background to economicpolicy making in Britain
➤ The nature of the post-war economic consensus
➤ The economic ‘revolution’ which took place under Margaret Thatcher after
➤ The movement away from Thatcherite policies in the 1990s
➤ The policies of the Labour government after 1997
The end of Empire
At the end of World War II it became clear that the best days of the British
empire were over. For a number of reasons, policy makers had to face up to the
fact that British economic prosperity could no longer rely
The broadcast media are required by law to be neutral as this is a partly
political issue. However, debate on Europe has become one of the most
common subjects for current affairs programmes. They may not be allowed to
lead public opinion, but they may prove to be the main source of information
for the electorate.
THE ECONOMY AND THE SINGLE CURRENCY
The effects on economicpolicy making of British membership in an increasingly integrated Europe can be divided into three main aspects. These are:
firstly, the ways in which the British government no longer has freedom
agriculture to provide the basis of national prosperity. 6 The established foundations of rural communities and the prioritisation of agricultural development allowed the co-operative movement to attain a prominent platform to impact upon the direction of socio-economicpolicy beyond 1922.
The outbreak of the First World War and the subsequent War of Independence that culminated in the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, cemented political change in Ireland. The events of these years represented a significant rupture in terms of the demands
a key question for economists. The possible ways in which
democracy may raise (or lower) the growth of Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) per capita include its effects on:
the creation of property and contract rights (and thereby
the incentive to invest); the formation of economicpolicy,
in particular whether it increases or reduces the likelihood
of growth-promoting policies; and the formation of human
capital through education and other services (such as basic
health care), thereby raising growth by increasing labour
productivity. Empirical growth economics
leadership, to concentrate his appeal on the party’s ‘core vote’
rather than reaching out to the uncommitted, has been particularly criticised.
In his chapter on Conservative policy, Peter Dorey examines the Conservative position on a series of key issues. He highlights the difficult
dilemmas which confronted the party after 1997, notably on economicpolicy
where the urge to promise tax cuts conflicted with voters’ demands for public
spending on essential services. Here, as elsewhere, party policy makers
showed that they had not reached clear conclusions about the reasons
Obama, Trump and the Asia Pacific political economy
. Throughout the post-war era, US foreign economicpolicies have been shaped significantly by broader geopolitical and security strategies. This is true for both Obama and Trump. For Obama, the pursuit of hegemony using more limited means dictated a regional shift to the Asia Pacific. His administration devised an economic strategy that complemented this geopolitical approach and simultaneously reaffirmed America’s traditional role as leader of a liberalising world economy. For Trump, the overall rejection of America’s hegemonic project has been accompanied by a departure