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Editor: Peter Burnell

Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Martine Pelletier

9780719075636_4_006.qxd 16/2/09 9:25 AM Page 98 6 ‘New articulations of Irishness and otherness’1 on the contemporary Irish stage Martine Pelletier Though the choice of 1990 as a watershed year demarcating ‘old’ Ireland from ‘new’, modern, Ireland may be a convenient simplification that ignores or plays down a slow, complex, ongoing process, it is nonetheless true to say that in recent years Ireland has undergone something of a revolution. Economic success, the so-called ‘Celtic Tiger’ phenomenon, and its attendant socio-political consequences, has given

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Domestic change through European integration
Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack, and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann

the specific ‘Austrian model’. The first steps towards post-war recovery and re-integration into the international community were largely shaped by participation in the European Recovery Programme. The amazing economic success of the first decades after the occupation by the four Allies (until 1955) helped to create a stable socio-political environment. In contrast to the harsh conflicts of the interwar period the emergence of a consensus oriented society was a major task resulting in a pact between parties, chambers, employers and trade unions called the ‘social

in Fifteen into one?
A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

’s decade of growth indicates that the objective of maintaining growth actually impeded the achievement of many important social goals, for two reasons. First, since the southern Irish state correctly realised that the main incentive to attract transnational corporations (TNCs) was low corporate taxes, it pursued a neo-liberal growth model that matched low taxes and fiscal restraint with minimal government interference in business. Second, for several reasons, including a spurious association of fiscal restraint with economic success, the state abjectly failed to mobilise

in The end of Irish history?
Antonia Lucia Dawes

good relationships with other people using the spaces around which street markets were set up, also revealed the defensive formation of a consciousness about the stigmatised nature of the profession (Hall et al . 1978 : 351–391). Given that skill as a talker was key to the economic success of the street hustler (Bourgois and Schonberg 2009 : 8; Wacquant 1998 ), the attention this chapter pays to market cries – the talk of the hustle – allows an examination of the oppositional class-consciousness through which negative ideas about street vending and street vendors

in Race talk
Open Access (free)
Tony Addison

vigorous following the adoption of universal adult franchise at independence – but otherwise the case for democracy in poor countries was mostly neglected. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy and notwithstanding serious human rights abuses. This lesson was taken to heart by the Chinese Communist Party, which began the transition to a market economy in the 1970s, the resulting economic growth thereby enabling the party to

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

, leadership in the field of information technology and full involvement with international institutions such as the European Union, World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, G7 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The management of economic success As we have seen above, much of the story of post-war economic policy making has been concerned with relative decline. During the 1990s, however, when Britain emerged from the world recession in better shape than Japan, the Far East and her European partners, a new set of

in Understanding British and European political issues
William Guthrie’s General History
Ben Dew

relentless promotion of commerce by Tudor and Stuart statesmen had ensured that, by the time of Charles I, a commercial spirit had entered into the English people, and, as a consequence, they no longer required direct ‘encouragement’ from the state. Conclusion Guthrie’s position on issues of commerce and revenue marks a considerable departure from the other post-Civil War historians discussed in this study. Key to the historical writing of the period was the assumption that a public-spirited monarch was required in order to bring the nation economic success. It was this

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Antonia Lucia Dawes

and subordination communities in cities, Philippe Bourgois and Jeff Schonberg ( 2009 : 8) and Loïc Wacquant ( 1998 : 4) noted that skill as a talker was key to the economic success of the street hustler. Street vendors in Napoli relied on a conscious resistance against negative ideas about street vending in order to protect their livelihoods. As I explore in the section of this chapter on urban transcultural dexterity, this required a proficiency in multilingual talk. Antonio Gramsci’s work on the relationship between structure and superstructure, relations of

in Race talk
Norman Flynn

. However, on economic indicators of national economic success, such as the competitiveness of exports, or labour productivity, France and Germany are consistently outperforming the UK, which survives on low productivity, long working hours and balance of payments deficits. Selective solidarity, corporatism and state welfare One of the difficulties in arguing for a ‘European’ model of social welfare provision is Europe’s diversity. Gosta Esping-Andersen (1990) made an influential classification of OECD-member welfare regimes, which divided the world into three – the

in In search of social democracy