Gill Haddow

embodiment. That is, whether an individual has a body which they are separate from as the body-as-machine model suggests, or whether a person experiences embodiment as being a body and there is no separation. Or indeed whether the experience of embodiment is ambiguous, variable and fluid, affected by events occurring in the body, and the environment outside it. Through a review of social science research conducted with organ transplantation recipients, it is shown that the identity changes most frequently mentioned are an alteration in gender or age, or preferences for

in Embodiment and everyday cyborgs
Technologies that alter subjectivity
Author: Gill Haddow

Using a range of social science methods and drawing on the sociology of the body, biomedicine and technology, Haddow invites readers of ‘Embodiment and everyday cyborgs’ to consider whether they might prefer organs from other humans or non-human animals (known as xenotransplantation), or implantable ‘cybernetic’ technologies to replace their own? In discovering that individuals have a very clear preference for human organs but not for the non-human, Haddow suggests that the inside of our bodies may be more important to our sense of identity than may have previously been thought.

Whereas organs from other (once) living bodies can contaminate the body of the recipient (simultaneously altering subjectivity so they inherit traits e.g. gender), cybernetic technology is acclimatised to and becomes part of the body and subjectivity. In organ transplantation the organ has the potential to alter subjectivity – whereas with cybernetic technology it does not alter identity but is incorporated into existing subjectivity.

Technologies are clean from previous organic fleshy associations and although they may malfunction or cause infection, they do not alter identity in the way that an organ might. Yet, we are arguably creating a 21st-century identity crisis through an increasing reliance on cybernetic technologies such as implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) creating new forms of ‘un-health’ and a new category of patient called ‘everyday cyborgs’ who have to develop strategies to incorporate device alienation as well as reinserting human agency over ICD activation.

Open Access (free)
Black Women as Surrogates of Liberation in James Baldwin’s If Beale Street Could Talk
Marquita R. Smith

This essay analyzes how James Baldwin’s late novel If Beale Street Could Talk represents Black women’s care work in the face of social death as an example of how Black women act as surrogates for Black liberation giving birth to a new world and possibilities of freedom for Black (male) people. Within the politics of Black nationalism, Black women were affective workers playing a vital role in the (re)creation of heteronormative family structures that formed the basis of Black liberation cohered by a belief in the power of patriarchy to make way for communal freedom. This essay demonstrates how Beale Street’s imagining of freedom centers not on what Black women do to support themselves or each other, but on the needs of the community at large, with embodied sacrifice as a presumed condition of such liberation.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Róisín Read

, Politics and the Power of Representation ( Cham : Palgrave Macmillan ), pp. 35 – 59 , doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-44630-7_2 . Thorpe , H. and Chawansky , M. ( 2020 ), ‘ Gender, Embodiment and Reflexivity in Everyday Spaces of Development in Afghanistan ’, Gender, Place

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

ethical positioning that brings into question all forms of violence, most especially the legitimate violence constituted through the force of law. Denying the constituted embodiment of life, lawful violence is dehumanising. This in turn gives rise to claims about the universal rights of humans in international law and its associative laws of war. Violence is the Result of Underdevelopment Domesticated in the shadow of juridical power by the threat of incarceration, critics of the previous position might also point to our shared material gains and sense of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

, MSF is what its employees do in its name: employees are the organisation, its human embodiment. It is only through the behaviour of fieldworkers that principles gain meaning. Consequently, MSF staff are ‘on duty’ at all times. As several MSF codes of conduct for expatriates explain, ‘all actions and statements made by staff are seen by outsiders as representing MSF. All staff members should act in accordance with the humanitarian principles … during and outside work hours’ ( MSF-OCA, 2006 ). For MSF staff then, there risks being a tension between the personal and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

security strategy’, ‘using the local community to be our protection’, and ‘rely[ing] so heavily on explaining who we are, and what we stand for, and how we work, and how decisions are made, and that’s the embodiment of humanitarian principles’. Approaches rooted in ‘protection’ tend to be seen as a necessary evil of security management, to be employed in particularly volatile environments when other approaches appear infeasible or ineffective. Furthermore, creating physical barriers between humanitarian actors and their operational environment can even hinder

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

of the PKK, created in 2003. This outsourcing was strategic: it displeased Turkey which was not only supporting the rebels, but saw the PKK as its long-standing enemy. Moreover, it allowed the Syrian government to concentrate its armed forces on other fronts. There were conditions attached to this understanding between the Syrian government and the local embodiment of the PKK (PYD/YPG). The PYD was not to provide any assistance to the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Towards a future of techno-organic hybridity
Gill Haddow

kinds of materials that could be used to repair and replace the body? To what effects? The technologies of human, animal and mechanical that could be used to restore the body are socially constructed within a nexus of human relationships defining them as human/non-human, male/female, natural/artificial, technological/organic, persons/species and clean/dirty. The way meanings are associated with these materials have consequences for identity and control; of reflexivity and the experiential; of matter and modality; and form and function. A sociology of embodiment In

in Embodiment and everyday cyborgs
Open Access (free)
British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation
Berthold Schoene

5 The Union and Jack: British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation BERTHOLD SCHOENE Starting with a general theoretical investigation into nationalist imageries of masculine and feminine embodiment, this essay offers a tentative outline of some of the most problematic shifts in the conceptualisation and literary representation of man, self and nation in Britain throughout the twentieth century. The second part of the essay comprises a close reading of John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger (1993 [1956]), which is to illustrate the syndromic inextricability

in Across the margins